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Flashcards in Biology & Immunology Deck (59)
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1

4 Bases of DNA

Adenine
Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine

2

Transcription

Process for DNA to RNA via RNA polymerase

3

Translation

Process from mRNA to strand of amino acids which forms a protein

4

Essential Amino Acids

Histidine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Methionine
Phenylalanine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine
Arginine*
Cysteine*
Glutamine*
Pyrrolysine*
Proline*
Selenocysteine*
Serine*
Tyrosine*

5

Which cells don't proliferate after birth?

Nerve cells
Muscle cells
Cardiac cells

6

Which cells are capable of self-renewal?

Stem cells

7

2 Types of Growth Factors

Stimulate cell division
Inhibit cell division

8

Cell Cycle Phases

G0
G1
S
G2
M

9

Define G0 Phase

A resting phase where the cell has left the cycle & has stopped dividing

10

Define G1 Phase

Cells increase in size

11

What is the G1 checkpoint?

Control mechanism ensures that everything is ready for DNA synthesis

12

Define S Phase

DNA replication occurs during this phase

13

Define G2 Phase

Gap between DNA synthesis & mitosis
Cell continues to grow

14

What is the G2 checkpoint?

Control mechanism ensures that everything is ready to enter the M phase & divide

15

Define M

Cell growth stops at this stage & cellular energy is focused on the orderly division into two daughter cells

16

What is the metaphase checkpoint?

Ensures that the cell is ready to complete cell division

17

2 Categories of Cancer Genes

Dominant: proto-oncoggenes
Recessive: tumor suppressor

18

Define Gain of Function Mutations

Altered or unregulated activity of a "photo-oncogene" leads to tumorigenesis

19

Define Loss of Function Mutations

Loss of activity of tumor suppressors results in unregulated pathways and tumorigenesis

20

"Hallmarks of Cancer"

Self-sufficiency in growth signals
Insensitivity to anti-growth signals
Evading apoptosis
Limitless reproductive potential
Capacity to invade other tissues
Sustained angiogenesis
Tissue invasion & metastases
Genomic instability

21

How do cancer cells invade our bodies?

Resisting apoptosis
CSCs forming resistant phenotypes
Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions
Interactions with microenvironment
Invadopodia & aquaporins
Genetic alterations

22

Invadopodia

Actin rich membrane protrusion formed by invasive cancer cells (protrude through basement membranes)

23

Cancer Stages

Stage 0: mucosa level
Stage 1: through the submucosa
Stage 2: through the muscle layers
Stage 3: through the serosa
Stage 4: through serosa and spread to other organs

24

# of Mutations with Gain of Function

Single mutation event

25

# of Mutations with Loss of Function

2 mutation events

26

How do proto-oncogenes normally function?

Associated with cell growth, cell division, & cell differention

27

What can proto-oncogenes be?

Cell surface receptors
Adapter molecules
Enzymes: kinases/phosphatases

28

Type of Cells in Carcinomas

Epithelial cells

29

Types of Cells in Sarcomas

Connective tissue cells

30

Types of Cells in Lymphomas & Leukemias

Blood