Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (45)
How do infections occur? (4)
1. Direct contact
2. Through the air
3. Through contact with bodily fluids
4. Indirectly through contact with a non-living surface that has been contaminated
When to wash hands - (4)
1. If you know or can see that hands are dirty
2. Before going home or on break
3. When entering a patients room
4. After the procedure
Steps to wash hands - (8)
1. Remove jewelry
2. Position body close but not touching sink
3. Wet both hands
4. Apply soap
5. Scrub hands 20 seconds
7. Dry hands
8. Turn off faucet with towel
PPE - gloves - (4)
1. If gloves become soiled during procedure change them
2. Gloves only work if you don't touch anything
3. Wash hands after removing
4. Always wear if risk of coming in contact with patient bodily fluids
What depends on someone getting infected? (2)
1. Amount of virulence
2. Health of person exposed
How are infections transmitted?
1. Through any mucous membrane like rubbing eyes or nose
2. When handling food or drink, gum
3. Inhaled or swallowed
1. Patient has contagious disease that can be spread via air or direct contact
2. Measles, staph infection
3. Wear mask
4. Patient has private room and bath. Everyone who enters has to wear gloves, mask, gown. Equipment left in room or cleaned. Use hand hygiene.
Blood and bodily fluids precaution
1. Patient has an infection that may be transmitted via bodily fluids
2. Dysentery, HIV
3. Always wear gloves
4. Gloves if coming in contact with fluids. Gown, eye and face protection of risk of splattering. Private room and bath
1. Patient has disease spread via droplets of mucous
2. Pertussis, meningitis
3. Always wear mask
4. Private room but can leave of wearing mask. Those entering should wear mask and other PPE necessary
1. Patient has an infection that can be transmitted through exhaled particles
2. Tuberculosis, whooping cough
3. Wear a mask or N95 respirator as appropriate
4. Patient has private room. Everyone who enters must wear a mask and if coming in contact with the patient, gloves. Good hand hygiene
1. Patient has an infection that can be spread through direct contact
2. Skin and wound infections
3. Always wear gloves
4. Private room. Everyone entering must wear gloves and sometimes a gown. Good hand hygiene. Medical equipment touching the patient should be dedicated to that patient or cleaned.
1. If patient is susceptible to infection
2. Transplant patients, immune compromised patients, burn patients
3. Follow signage
4. Depending on needs of patient and function of worker in the room, various levels and types of PPE will be required. Hand washing
Regulates drugs and food
Research and recommend
What is the most common system for blood collection?
Evacuated blood collection system
What does evacuated blood collection system use? (3)
1. Double ended needle
2. Needle holder
3. Evacuated tube
Why do blood tubes need to be full?
The ratio of blood vs additive must be correct. Will destroy the blood cells
Standard precautions - 5
1. Hand hygiene
2. Personal protective equipment (gloves, gowns, face mask)
3. Respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette
4. Safe injection practices
5. Safe handling of potentially contaminated equipment or services in patient environment
What will happen for too long of a tourniquet?
Hemoconcentration. Allows disportionate amount of blood cells in the part of the arm. Not a good reading.
How do you label the specimen? (4)
1. Patient name
2. Time of draw
4. Your initials
What is on a lab slip? (7)
1. Physician name
2. Patient name
3. date of birth
4. Room and bed number
5. Tests required
6. Tests ordered
7. Special instructions
What is the purpose of standard precautions?
Protect yourself and patient from infection.
Why wash your hands before break?
Don't expose yourself and others to infections.
When should PPE be put on when entering a patients room and why?
Before. To protect yourself
What factors affect whether a person will become infected with a disease after being exposed to the pathogen?
1. Have to be a susceptible host
2. Strength (virulence) of the pathogen
3. Amount of the pathogen
What number of needle is most commonly used?
21 and 22 gauge
What is the purpose of the tourniquet?
Engorge the vein
What is advantage of a small needle?
1. Less pain for patient
2. Can and should be used for small veins