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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (45)
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1

How do infections occur? (4)

1. Direct contact
2. Through the air
3. Through contact with bodily fluids
4. Indirectly through contact with a non-living surface that has been contaminated

2

When to wash hands - (4)

1. If you know or can see that hands are dirty
2. Before going home or on break
3. When entering a patients room
4. After the procedure

3

Steps to wash hands - (8)

1. Remove jewelry
2. Position body close but not touching sink
3. Wet both hands
4. Apply soap
5. Scrub hands 20 seconds
6. Rinse
7. Dry hands
8. Turn off faucet with towel

4

PPE - gloves - (4)

1. If gloves become soiled during procedure change them
2. Gloves only work if you don't touch anything
3. Wash hands after removing
4. Always wear if risk of coming in contact with patient bodily fluids

5

What depends on someone getting infected? (2)

1. Amount of virulence
2. Health of person exposed

6

How are infections transmitted?

1. Through any mucous membrane like rubbing eyes or nose
2. When handling food or drink, gum
3. Inhaled or swallowed
4. Splattering

7

Strict/complete isolation

Why
Examples
Remember
Requirements

1. Patient has contagious disease that can be spread via air or direct contact
2. Measles, staph infection
3. Wear mask
4. Patient has private room and bath. Everyone who enters has to wear gloves, mask, gown. Equipment left in room or cleaned. Use hand hygiene.

8

Blood and bodily fluids precaution

Why
Examples
Remember
Requirements

1. Patient has an infection that may be transmitted via bodily fluids
2. Dysentery, HIV
3. Always wear gloves
4. Gloves if coming in contact with fluids. Gown, eye and face protection of risk of splattering. Private room and bath

9

Droplet isolation

Why
Examples
Remember
Requirements

1. Patient has disease spread via droplets of mucous
2. Pertussis, meningitis
3. Always wear mask
4. Private room but can leave of wearing mask. Those entering should wear mask and other PPE necessary

10

Respiratory isolation

Why
Example
Remember
Requirements

1. Patient has an infection that can be transmitted through exhaled particles
2. Tuberculosis, whooping cough
3. Wear a mask or N95 respirator as appropriate
4. Patient has private room. Everyone who enters must wear a mask and if coming in contact with the patient, gloves. Good hand hygiene

11

Contact isolation

Why
Examples
Remember
Requirements

1. Patient has an infection that can be spread through direct contact
2. Skin and wound infections
3. Always wear gloves
4. Private room. Everyone entering must wear gloves and sometimes a gown. Good hand hygiene. Medical equipment touching the patient should be dedicated to that patient or cleaned.

12

Reverse isolation

Why
Examples
Remember
Requirements

1. If patient is susceptible to infection
2. Transplant patients, immune compromised patients, burn patients
3. Follow signage
4. Depending on needs of patient and function of worker in the room, various levels and types of PPE will be required. Hand washing

13

FDA

Regulates drugs and food

14

OSHA

Protects workers

15

CDC

Research and recommend

16

What is the most common system for blood collection?

Evacuated blood collection system

17

What does evacuated blood collection system use? (3)

1. Double ended needle
2. Needle holder
3. Evacuated tube

18

Why do blood tubes need to be full?

The ratio of blood vs additive must be correct. Will destroy the blood cells

19

Standard precautions - 5

1. Hand hygiene
2. Personal protective equipment (gloves, gowns, face mask)
3. Respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette
4. Safe injection practices
5. Safe handling of potentially contaminated equipment or services in patient environment

20

What will happen for too long of a tourniquet?

Hemoconcentration. Allows disportionate amount of blood cells in the part of the arm. Not a good reading.

21

How do you label the specimen? (4)

1. Patient name
2. Time of draw
3. Date
4. Your initials

22

What is on a lab slip? (7)

1. Physician name
2. Patient name
3. date of birth
4. Room and bed number
5. Tests required
6. Tests ordered
7. Special instructions

23

What is the purpose of standard precautions?

Protect yourself and patient from infection.

24

Why wash your hands before break?

Don't expose yourself and others to infections.

25

When should PPE be put on when entering a patients room and why?

Before. To protect yourself

26

What factors affect whether a person will become infected with a disease after being exposed to the pathogen?

1. Have to be a susceptible host
2. Strength (virulence) of the pathogen
3. Amount of the pathogen

27

What number of needle is most commonly used?

21 and 22 gauge

28

What is the purpose of the tourniquet?

Engorge the vein

29

What is advantage of a small needle?

1. Less pain for patient
2. Can and should be used for small veins

30

What are disadvantages of a small needle?

1. Hemolysis - destruction of blood cells
2. Too much pressure of going from a big spot to a small spot