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Flashcards in Cholinomimetics Deck (44)
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Why are the receptors described as nicotinic and muscarinic?

Muscarinic effects are those that can be replicated by muscarine
Nicotinic effects are those that an be replicated by nicotine
Comes from amanita muscaria and nicotiana tabacum


What can be given to abolish muscarinic effects?

Atropine (competitive muscarinic antagonist)


State where you would find the different types of muscarinic receptor.

M1 – salivary glands, CNS, stomach
M2 – heart
M3 – salivary glands, bronchial/visceral smooth muscle, eyes, and sweat glands
M4 and M5 are found in the CNS
NOTE: muscarinic receptors are generally excitatory except for on the heart


What type of receptor are all muscarinic receptors?

G-protein coupled receptors


What is the difference in the G-protein receptors of M1, M3 and M5 compared to M2 and M4?

M1, M3 and M5 = Gq protein linked receptors – they stimulate PLC which increases IP3 and DAG
M2 and M4 = Gi protein linked receptors (inhibitory) – they decrease the production of cAMP


Describe the structure of nicotinic receptors. What determines its ligand binding properties?

Nicotinic receptors consist of 5 subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta or epsilon)
The combination of subunits determines its ligand binding properties.


What are the two main types of nicotinic receptor? Describe their subunit composition.

Muscle and Ganglion
Muscle = 2 alpha + beta + delta + epsilon
Ganglion = 2 alpha + 3 beta


How do the effects of acetylcholine on nicotinic receptors compare to its effects on muscarinic receptors?

The effects of acetylcholine are relatively weak on nicotinic compared to muscarinic


What three effects does muscarinic stimulation have on the eye?

Contraction of the ciliary muscle (accommodate for near vision)
Constriction of sphincter pupillae (circular muscle of the eye) – this constricts the pupil and increases drainage of intraocular fluid


What is glaucoma?

Sustained raised intraocular pressure – this can cause damage to the optic nerves and retina and can lead to blindness


Where is aqueous humour produced? Describe its passage through the eye.

The capillaries in the ciliary body produce aqueous humour
Aqueous humour passes anteriorly into the anterior chamber and is then drained through the canals of Schlemm into the venous system


What is the role of aqueous humour?

Provides oxygen and nutrients to the cornea and lens because they don’t have a blood supply


What happens in Angle-closure glaucoma?

The angle between the cornea and the iris is narrowed which decreases the drainage of intraocular fluid through the canals of Schlemm


What are the effects of giving a muscarinic agonist to people with Angle-closure glaucoma?

This causes constriction of sphincter pupillae and opens up the angle to increase the drainage of intraocular fluid


Describe, in detail (including the mechanism), the muscarinic effects on the heart.

Binding of acetylcholine to the M2 receptors (Gi protein linked receptor) causes a decrease in cAMP production
This triggers a decrease in Ca2+ influx, which leads to a decrease incardiac output
It also triggers an increase in K+ efflux, which leads to a decrease in heart rate


Describe the muscarinic effects on the vasculature.

There is no direct parasympathetic innervation of blood vessels
However, there are muscarinic receptors on the endothelial cells
When stimulated, it triggers the production of nitric oxide (NO) from the endothelial cells, which causes vasodilation and a decrease in TPR


Summarise the muscarinic effects on the cardiovascular system.

Decrease in heart rate
Decrease in cardiac output (due to decreased atrial contraction)
Decrease in total peripheral resistance (due to vasodilation)
Decrease in blood pressure


Describe the muscarinic effects on non-vascular smooth muscle.

It is the opposite of muscarinic effects on vascular smooth muscle
It causes CONTRACTION of non-vascular smooth muscle
Lungs – bronchoconstriction
GI tract – increased motility
Bladder – increased bladder emptying


Describe the muscarinic effects on exocrine glands.

Increased bronchial secretions
Increased GI secretions (including gastric HCl production)
Increased sweating (sympathetic-mediated)


What are the two types of cholinomimetic drug?

Directly Acting – muscarinic agonists
Indirectly Acting – acetylcholinesterase inhibitors -> increase the synaptic concentration of acetylcholine


State two types of muscarinic receptor agonists and give an example of each.

Choline Esters – Bethanechol
Alkaloids - Pilocarpine


Describe the selectivity of pilocarpine.

Non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist
It stimulates ALL muscarinic receptors


State some side-effects of pilocarpine.

Blurred vision
Respiratory difficulty
GI disturbance and pain


Describe the selectivity of bethanechol.

M3 selective agonist


What are the effects of bethanechol?

Assist bladder emptying
Enhanced gastric motility


State some side-effects of bethanechol.

Same as pilocarpine + bradycardia, nausea


What is the half-life of pilocarpine and bethanechol?

3-4 hours


What are the two types of anticholinesterase? Give examples of each.

Reversible – physostigmine
Irreversible – ecothiopate


What are the two types of cholinesterase?



Where is acetylcholinesterase found? Describe its properties.

It is found in ALL cholinergic synapses
It has very RAPID action and it is HIGHLY SELECTIVE for acetylcholine