Flashcards in Drugs of the Cardiovascular System – The Vasculature Deck (37)
Name three drug classes that interfere with the renin-angiotensin system.
Angiotensin receptor blockers
Describe the action of aldosterone in collecting duct tubule cells.
Aldosterone passes through the plasma membrane and binds to mineralocorticoid receptors intracellularly and increases the synthesis of Na+ channels and Na+/K+ pumps
This causes an increase in sodium reabsorption
Give an example of an ACE inhibitor.
Tend to end in il
What are the anti-hypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors?
They reduce the production of angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor
It also reduces the production of aldosterone, thus reducing salt and water retention
This means that there is a decrease in blood volume, hence a decrease in venous return
What law links venous return to contractility?
What is diabetic nephropathy caused by?
It is due to significant damage to the kidney glomerulus because of toxic products
Why are ACE inhibitors used in diabetic nephropathy?
ACE inhibitors reduce the angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole
This reduces the blood pressure at the glomerulus and hence reduces the accumulation of toxic products at the glomerulus
Give an example of an angiotensin receptor blocker.
What is the most common side effect of ACE inhibitors?
COUGH due to stopping breakdown of bradykinin which causes cough
State some other side effects of ACE inhibitors and ARBs.
Urticaria/Angioedema (ACEi – very rare)
Renal failure in patients with renal artery stenosis (due to both)
What type of calcium channel blocker is more selective for blood vessels? Give an example.
Dihydropyridines – nicardipine and amlodipine
Which part of the calcium channel do the different CCBs bind to?
Dihydropyridines bind to the extracellularly component of the calcium channel
Diltiazem and verapamil binds to the intracellular component so for a CCB to have an effect on the heart it needs to be able to penetrate the membrane and act on the receptor inside the cell
Why are non-rate slowing CCBs preferred to rate-slowing CCBs in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure?
They have a more powerful effect on vascular smooth muscle
What type of receptor is a beta adrenoceptor?
G-protein coupled receptor
What are the effects of noradrenaline that cause an increase in blood pressure?
Increase in heart rate and cardiac contractility (leads to increase in CO) via beta-1 receptors in the heart
Stimulation of beta-1 receptors in the kidneys promotes renin release --> increase in angiotensin II
What is hypertension in younger patients normally caused by?
Increased sympathetic drive
State some uses of beta-blockers.
Chronic heart failure
Also thyrotoxicosis, glaucoma, anxiety states, migraine prophylaxis, benign essential tremor
Give an example of a cardio-selective beta-blocker.
What are mixed beta-alpha blockers? Give an example.
They are beta-1, beta-2 and alpha-1 blockers
You get extra vasodilation due to alpha-1 blockade
Give an example of an alpha-1 blocker.
Give an example of a non-selective alpha blocker.
Why is it important for alpha-1 blockers to be selective?
Alpha-2 receptors are the negative feedback receptors of the SNS
Blocking them will result in enhancement of sympathetic activity
What is step 1 in the NICE guidelines for treatment of hypertension?
< 55 years = ACEi + ARB
>55 years or Afro-Caribbean of any age = CCBs + thiazide-type diuretics
What is step 2?
ACEi or ARB
AND CCB or thiazide diuretic
Basically combine them
What is step 3?
What is step 4?
Further diuretic therapy (low-dose spironolactone)
Alpha or beta-blocker
Called resistant hypertension
What is spironolactone?
It is an aldosterone receptor antagonist
What is chronic heart failure?
Impaired cardiac function due to ischaemic heart disease, hypertension or cardiomyopathy that results in fluid retention, oedema and fatigue
Which drugs are normally used on patients with chronic heart failure?