Flashcards in Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System Deck (21)
Which limb of the autonomic nervous system has more of an effect on the Liver?
Sympathetic – causes hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
Which limb of the autonomic nervous system dominates the lungs and the eyes at rest?
Lungs – causes partial bronchoconstriction
Eyes – allows near vision
Describe the relationship between baroreceptor firing and parasympathetic discharge.
Baroreceptors are stimulatory to the parasympathetic nerves i.e. an increase in baroreceptor firing stimulates an increase in parasympathetic firing
Describe the differences between sympathetic responses and parasympathetic responses.
Sympathetic – coordinated and divergent
Parasympathetic – discrete and localised
What type of receptor are nicotinic receptors?
Type 1 – ionotropic receptors
They are VERY fast
What type of receptor are muscarinic receptors?
Type 2 – G-protein coupled receptors
Slower than Type 1 receptors
Describe the difference in the transmission through nicotinic and muscarinic receptors.
Nicotinic is much faster
What effect does parasympathetic dominance at rest have on the: lungs, gut, bladder and eyes?
Lungs – partial bronchoconstriction
Gut – increased gut motility
Bladder – increased urinary frequency
Eyes – short-sightedness
Why would giving a ganglion blocker at rest cause constipation?
At rest the parasympathetic nervous system is dominant, which increases gastric motility. This means that a ganglion blocker will knock out this effect and cause constipation.
Where are the three types of muscarinic receptor found?
M1 – neural tissue
M2 – heart
M3 – exocrine and smooth muscle
Which adrenergic receptors are responsible for the sympathetic control of vasculature?
Alpha 1 – constriction
Beta 2 – dilation
What type of receptor are all adrenergic receptors?
Describe the synthesis of acetylcholine.
It is formed from acetyl CoA and choline by choline acetyltransferase
It is broken down by acetyl cholinesterase
Describe the synthesis of Noradrenaline.
Tyrosine -> DOPA (enzyme: tyrosine hydroxylase)
DOPA -> dopamine (enzyme: DOPA decarboxylase)
Dopamine -> Noradrenaline (enzyme: dopamine beta-hydroxylase)
This last step takes place in a vesicle
What is the uptake and breakdown mechanism of noradrenaline in neural tissue?
Monoamine Oxidase breakdown (MAO)
Role of sensory neurones in the enteric nervous system?
They connect to mucosal chemoreceptors and stretch receptors detect chemical substances in the lumen and tension
Neurotransmitters of motor neurones in enteric nervous system for contracting smooth muscle
ACh and substance P
Neurotransmitters of motor neurones in enteric nervous system for relaxing smooth muscle
Vasoactive intestinal peptide
What is the uptake and breakdown mechanism of noradrenaline in extra-neural tissue?
Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase (COMT)
ANS control of adipose tissue