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Flashcards in Cranial Nerves & Disorders Deck (36):
1

[ OLFACTORY ] nerve

1. Cranial Nerve # ?

2. Foramen Traveled thru? >> What special structure sits on top of this "Foramen"?

3. Component

4. Main Structures/Function for each Component

[OLFACTORY] n.

1. (CN1)

2. [Ethmoid Cribriform Plate] (transmits CN1 tiny branches)>> which has [Crista Galli/ Crown of Cock] sitting on top projecting superiorly

3. SVA

4. SVA= Olfactory nasal mucosa / SMELL

2

[ OPTIC ] nerve

1. Cranial Nerve # ?

2. Foramen Traveled? 

3. Component 

4. Main Structures/Function for each Component

5. Name the Nucleus and their location

[OPTIC] n.
1. CN2

2. Optic Foramen canal

3. SSA

4. SSA= Vision (Rods & Cones) 

5. [Lateral Geniculate Nucleus] -->Thalamus 

3

[OCULOMOTOR ] nerve

1. Cranial Nerve # ?

2. Component [2]

4. Function for each Component [2]

5. Name the Nucleus and their location [2]

[OCULOMOTOR] n.

1. CN3

2. [GVE parasympathetic] and GSE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. 
A: [GVE psmp]=uses ciliary ganglion to innervate [ciliary muscle(fattens lens) & sphincter pupillae]--> Pupil constriction 

B: GSE= Levator Palpebrae and MOST EYEBALL MUSCLES excluding [SUP oblique] and [Lateral Rectus] 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. 
A: [Edinger-Westphal] nc: MIDBRAIN

B: Oculomotor nc: MIDBRAIN

Attached Image shows [Oculomotor CN3 lesion]

4

[TROCHLEAR] nerve

1. Cranial Nerve # ?

2. Foramen Traveled?

3. Component

4. Function for each Component

5. Name the Nucleus and its location

3) Explain eye movement directionality of
 [Inferior Oblique m.] & the [Superior Oblique m.] 

[TROCHLEAR] n.

1) CN4

2) SUPerior Orbital fissure {CN 3,4,5B1,6}

3. GSE

4. GSE= SUPerior Oblique eyeball muscle

5. Trochlear nc---->MIDBRAIN

 

6) I O U O, SO DO
Inferior Oblique Up Out
Superior Oblique Down Out 

5

[TriGeminal] nerve B1 vs. B2 vs. B3

1. Cranial Nerve # ?

Components = GSA and SVE

2A. Function of GSA

2B. Function of SVE (3)

3. Name the Nucleus and their purposes [3]

B: UMN Corticobulbar lesions of [Trigeminal CN5] would manifest what jaw sx? (2) 

C: LMN lesions of [Trigeminal CN5] would manifest what jaw sx? (2)

[TriGeminal] n.
1. CN5
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. GSA and SVE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. 
•GSA=
Pain & Temp for Most Head & Face

•••SVE= [Motor to ALL mastication muscles (masseter + temporalis) via UMN corticobulbar control] + ANT Belly Digastric & [First Arch muscles reflex]

B: [Jaw weakness with no jaw deviation] + [Brisk Jaw Jerk Reflex]

C: [Jaw deviates to side of LMN lesion] + [Masseter/Temporalis muscle atrophy]

6

Describe what the GSA component of the
 [Trigeminal/CN__] innervates? 

ºB1/Opthalmic (2)

ºB2/Maxillary (3)

ºB3/mandibular  (3)

B: What causes Trigeminal Neuralgia in younger vs. Older pts? 

C: Clinical Manifestation 

D: Tx (3)

[Trigeminal/CN5] ALL BRANCHES
GSA= face SENSORY 

ºB1(upper face skin) + Corneal Reflex

ºB2(mid face skin, upper teeth,lower nose) /

ºB3 ([lower face/jaw/mouth], outer ear pinna, 
ANT 2/3 tongue-Touch) 

B: [Younger pts= MS / Older pts= Tortuous blood vessels compressing CN5]

C: [Lightning-like jabs of pain (mostly in B2 or B3 area)

D: 

-[Anticonvulsants vs. Destroy nerve branch vs. move blood vessel]

7

* Chorda Tympani n. *
1) What Parent nerve does this come from and which Component is it? 

2) What stuff does this innervate?  

3) Where exactly does this nerve branch  from its Parent? 

"Drink 7 Up...You'll TASTE it" 

1) Facial CN7 [SVA]

2) [Tongue TASTE] 

3) Branches from Facial CN7 BEFORE CN7 exits [Stylomastoid] process

8

[ABDUCENS] nerve

1. Cranial Nerve # ?

3. Component 

4. Main Structures/Function for each Component 

5. Name the Nucleus and its location 

[ABDUCENS] n.

1. CN6

3. GSE

4. GSE= motor to Lateral Rectus muscle {LR6}

5. Abducens Nucleus ----> Pontomedullary  junction in Pons 

9

A: The [ middle meningeal artery ] transmits thru which foramen? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

B:Describe  LR6 (SO4) 3

A: Foramen Spinosum ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

B: ºLateral Rectus = CN6/Abducens ºSUPerior Oblique = CN4/Trochlear ºCN3/OCCULOMOTOR = ALL OTHER EYEBALL MUSCLES

10

Name the Nerve you'd use....

A: ...To See

B: ....To "Focus" & accommodate after seeing [which associated muscle? ]

C: ...Looking at BRIGHT Light [which associated muscle?]

D: ...lifting eyelids & opening eyes

E: ....FORCING ur eyes shut! 

Nerve you'd use...

A:...to see= CN2/OPTIC

B:...to "Focus" & accommodate after seeing= CN3/Occulomotor [Ciliary muscle]

C: ...looking @ BRIGHT light= CN3/Occulomotor [Sphincter Pupillae m.]

D:..lifting eyelids= CN3/Occulomotor [ Levator Palpebrae m.]

E: ...FORCING eyes shut!= Facial CN7

11

1) Which autonomic nerve system Dilates the pupil wide? 

2) Which nerve system and muscle opens EYELIDS extra wide? 

3) Explain eye movement directionality of
 [Inferior Oblique m.] & the [Superior Oblique m.] 

1) Sympathetic nervous system

2) Sympathetic nervous system 

3) I O U O, SO DO
Inferior Oblique Up Out
Superior Oblique Down Out 

12

List the 5 Components of [Facial CN7] and EACH of their purposes
1. GVA
2. SVA
3. GVE [4]
4. SVE [4]
5. GSA

[Facial CN7] Components 

1. GVA= soft palate deep sensation--->[Lower NST] 

2. SVA=Tongue TASTE from anterior 2/3--> [upper NST] 

3. GSA= Pain & Temp of [Ear pinna] -->[Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus of V]  

4. [GVE]= motor to submand., subling, lacrimal & [nasal mucosa] glands---> [SUP salivary nucleus] 

5. SVE= motor to facial express muscle, POST belly digastric, stylohyoid, stapedius --> [motor nuc. of 7]  

13

1) Petrous bone2)What parent bone is this bone found? 3) What is its clinical significance?

1) MOST DENSE cranial bone that [internal acoustic meatus] is found in2) Temporal bone3) Houses [internal acoustic meatus] where Facial CN7 transmits

14

The ____ ____n. gives way to the Pterygopalatine ganglion found from CN__. This in turn gives way to a n. tht travels to innervate the ____ and _____ glands

The GREATER PETROSAL n. gives way to Pterygopalatine ganglion found from CN7, which turns into a n. tht innervates the Lacrimal and Nasal mucosa glands

15

What occurs after the Facial CN7 exits the [internal auditory meatus] along with CN__ [3]

Once Facial CN7 exits [internal auditory meatus] (with [CN8/vestibulochoclear/auditory])1st - visceral motor fibers of Facial CN7 divides into [Grtr Petrosal n.] & [Chorda Tympani] 2nd- [Grtr Petrosal n.] innervates lacrimal, nasal & Palatine glands3rd- [Chorda Tympani] innervates submandibular & sublingual Salivary glands

16

1) Describe the Branchial Motor Component of the ___nerve [CN__] 2) What are the muscles of facial expression? [3]3) Which component does this belong to?

Branchial Motor Component of Facial CN7ºVoluntary MOTOR control of facial expression muscles, POST belly digastric, stylohyoid & stapedius2) Buccinator, BOTH Occipitalis, platysma 3) SVE

17

1) Name nerves working in branchial motor component OF Facial CN7? [7]2) Which component does this belong to?

+ [POST auricular bnch] + [n. to POST Belly Digastric & Stylohyoid]THe=Temporal bnchZombie= Zygomatic bnchBit= Buccal bnchMy= Mandibular bnchCat= Cervical bnch 2) SVE

18

A: What is Bell's Palsy caused by? B: Pt that has Dry Mouth but still can cry has a lesion where at?

A: Facial CN7 irritation B: Facial Canal (somewhere between [Grtr Petrosal n.] and [Chorda Tympani n.] )

19

[Vestibulocochlear Auditory] nerve1. Cranial Nerve # ?2. Foramen Traveled? 3. Component 4. Function for each Component [2]5. Name the Nucleus and their location [2]

[Vestibulocochlear Auditory] n.1. CN82. internal auditory meatus [along with CN7]3. SSA [cochlear n. vs. Vestibular n.]4. A: SSA cochlear = [Organ of Corti] in cochlear ductB: SSA vestibular = semicircular canals 5. A: (2 cochlear Nuclei)---> MEDULLAB: (4 Vestibular Nuclei)----> MEDULLA

20

[Glossopharyngeal] nerve

1. Cranial Nerve # ?

2. Foramen Traveled?

3. Components and Nuclei associated

ºGVA [3]ºSVAºGVEºSVEºGSA

4. Function for each Component

[Glossopharyngeal] n.

1. CN9

2. Jugular Foramen

3. GVA[3] / SVA / GSA / GVE(hitches ride) / SVE

4. ºGVA[3]=[bp via carotid sinus], [sensory soft palate], [pharynx(gag reflex)] --->{LOWER NST}

ºSVA= Tongue TASTE----> {Upper NST} ºGSA= Pain & Temp of Ear Pinna (via [Spinal Trigeminal nucleus of V] )

ºGVE= "GLOAP"--> parotid salivary gland{secretomotor}--->{inf. salivatory nucleus]

ºSVE = Stylopharyngeaus m. ---> [nucleus Ambiguous] 

"GLOAP"= Glossopharyngeal n. uses [lesser petrosal n.] to get to otic ganglion--->then uses Auriculotemporal n. to get to PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND destination

21

Which 3 Cranial Nerves transmit thru [Jugular Foramen]?

CN 9, 10 and 11

22

Which 4 Cranial Nerves are Parasympathetic ?

3, 7, 9 and 10 = Parasympathetic CN =

23

[VAGUS] nerve

1. Cranial Nerve # ?

2. Foramen Traveled?

3. Components [5]

[VAGUS] n.

1. CN10

2. Jugular Foramen [along with 9,10,11]

3. GVA / SVA / GSA / GVE / SVE

24

A: What are is Function for each Component of the Vagus Nerve [CN__] 
ºGVA [4]
ºSVA
ºGVE [2]
ºSVE [4]

ºGSA 

B: List the Associated Nucleus with each

C: What are the 2 Vagus CN10 [SVE] branches & what do they innervate? Which one wraps around the Aortic Arch?

VAGUS n. = CN10

ºGVA= DEEP sensory to (ALET) abd, larynx, esophagus & trachea---> {Lower NST} 

ºSVA= Taste buds @ epiglottis [back of throat]--> {upper NST} 

ºGSA = Pain & Temp of Ear Pinna (via [Spinal Trigeminal nucleus of V] ) 

ºGVE= [smooth muscle respiratory or GI ] & [controls HR via SA /AV node]--->{Dorsal Motor nc. of 10} 

ºSVE---> Nucleus Ambiguous 
1. All pharynx muscles (except stylopharyngeus)
2. All PALATE muscles (except tensor palatini )[includes Palatoglossus]
 3. [Larynx & Cricothyroid] 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C: 2 SVE branches: 
[SUP Laryngeal]-->[External laryngeal branch]
-->Cricothyroid

[Recurrent Laryngeal]--->Intrinsic Larynx*** = RL wraps around the Aortic Arch!

25

[Spinal Accessory] nerve

1. Cranial Nerve # ?

2. Foramen Traveled?

3. Component

4. Function for each Component

5. Name the Nucleus and its location

[Spinal Accessory]

1. CN11

2. Jugular Foramen AND Foramen Magnum

3. SVE

4. SVE=motor to Sternocleidomastoid & Traps

5. [Spinal Accessory nucleus]---->(C1-C5)Spinal Cord

26

Spinal accessory n. has a ___ root and a _____ root, both that consist of _____ motor fibers

Spinal Accessory n. has a CRANIAL root and a SPINAL root both which consist of BRANCHIAL motor fibers

27

1) Explain which parts of the Spinal Accessory CN11 exit Jugular Foramen vs. Foramen Magnum?

2) What would cause an Ipsilateral deficit of the shoulder?

1) Brainstem exits via Jugular Foramen vs. [C1-5]Roots exit via Foramen Magnum

2) one sided spinal accessory CN11 lesion

28

[Hypoglossal] nerve

1. Cranial Nerve # ?

3. Component

4. Function for each Component [2]

5. Name the Nucleus and its location

[Hypoglossal] n.

1. CN12

3. GSE

4. GSE= Intrinsic/EXtrinsic tongue muscles mvmnt (Genioglossus m. protrude L & R halves to the tongue forward)

5. Hypoglossal Nucleus ---> Rostral MEDULLA

29

A: All muscles ending with ".....glossus" are innervated by the ________ n. EXCEPT FOR THE ____ n.!

B: Lesion of the [Upper Motor Neuron] for this CN would manifest how? 

C: Lesion of the [lower Motor Neuron] for this CN would manifest how? 

D: Why are [Upper Motor Neuron] lesions of this CN often asx? 

All muscles ending with "....glossus" are innervated by HYPOGLOSSAL CN12 n. EXCEPT FOR [PALATOGLOSSUS n.]

B: Weak Protruding tongue points away from lesion= [Upper Motor CN12 neuron]

C: Weak Protruding tongue points tO Lesion = [lOwer motor CN12 lesion] = YOU LICK YOUR WOUNDS! (comes from [genioglossus atrophy], fibrillations and fasciculations)

D: In most pts, UMN lesions don't cause weakness/tongue deviation since motor cortex controls ipsilateral and contralateral hypoglossal nuclei

image below depicts an Upper motor neuron lesion = away from lesion

 

 

30

Name which nerve is lesioned in these dz

A: Tongue weak on one side
B: Shoulder Weak on one side
C: Bells Palsy/Facial Droop
D: Acute Cross-eyed (abducent Direction of gaze in 1 eye)

E: Down & Out gaze with dilated pupil in 1 eye

A: [Hypoglossal CN12] lesion

B: [Spinal Accessory CN11] lesion
C: [Facial CN7] palsy 

D: [Abducens CN6] palsy

E: [Occulomotor CN3] palsy 

31

Name the 12 Cranial Nerves in Order

" Oh, oh, Oh to touch and feel A Guy's Vein...Such Heaven" 
CN1. Olfactory 
CN2. optic 
CN3. Occulomotor 
CN4. Trochlear 
CN5. Trigeminal 

CN6. Abducens 
CN7. Facial 

CN8. AcoustoVestibulocochlear 

CN9. Glossopharyngeal

CN10. VAGUS 
.......
CN11. Spinal Accessory 
CN12. Hypoglossal 

32

Describe These Cranial Nerve Componenents 

ºGSE 

ºGSA [3]

ºGVE  / _______ [3]

ºGVA 

ºSVE [2]

ºSVA [2]

ºSSA [3]

ºGSE= motor--->voluntary muscle

ºGSA= sensation FROM skin/muscle/joints

ºGVE/PARASYMPTHC=MOTOR to smooth muscle, [blood vessels] & glands

ºGVA= Visceral Sensation & pain FROM internal organs/Guts

ºSVE= voluntary motor ---> [pharyngeal arch/Gill muscles] OR Facial Xpression m. ! 

ºSVA= TASTE & SMELL

ºSSA= vision / hearing / Balance 

33

Just Name the Functional Components for Each Cranial Nerve
1. Olfactory 
2. Optic 
3. Occulomotor [2] 
4. Trochlear 
5. Trigeminal * [2] 

6. Abducens
7. Facial * [5]
8. AcoustoVestibulocochlear
9. Glossopharyngeal [5]
10. Vagus [5]
11. Spinal Accessory 
12. Hypoglossal 

1. Olfactory = SVA

2. Optic = SSA

3. Occulomotor = GVE / GSE

4. Trochlear = GSE

5. Trigeminal = SVE / GSA

6. Abducens= GSE

7. Facial = GVA / SVA / GVE / SVE / GSA

8. Acoustic/Vestibulocochlear = SSA

9. Glossopharyngeal = GVA/ SVA / GVE / SVE / GSA

10. Vagus= GVA / SVA / GVE / SVE / GSA

11. Spinal ACCESSORY= SVE

12. Hypoglossal = GSE

34

Which Cranial Nerves are responsible in the following and why:

A: CHEWING Food

B: SWALLOWING food [2]

C: Talking :-)

A: CHEWING Food = [Trigeminal/CN5-B3]--> innervates Lateral & medial Pterygoids-

B: SWALLOWING Food= ºCN9-->motor to stylopharyngeus

*SVE component*º[CN10 Vagus]

 

C: Talking :-) = [CN10 Vagus] ----> Larynx

35

" SVE Sara & Just ___ me 2 Geese!...and ____ some Gas GE!"

"SVE SSA & Just [GVE me 2 GSE]!...and dude [SVE some GSA] GE!

36

Why are Brainstem infarction/hemorrhage/mass/tumor problematic for the Cranial Nerves?

Brainstem abnormaities often --->

COMBINED CN and fiber tract deficits