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Flashcards in General Chemistry- Atomic Structure Deck (167)
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1

What are the three subatomic particles?

Protons
Neutrons
Electrons

2

What is the fundamental unit of charge?

+1e
(e=1.6x10^-19C)

3

What's the mass of a proton?

1 Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

4

What is the atomic number?

(Z) or the number of protons found in an atom, of that element.

5

What charge do neutrons have?

None, they are neutral

6

What makes up almost the entire mass of an atom?

Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus

7

What is an isotope?

Atoms that share an atomic number, but have different mass numbers

8

What is the charge of an electron?

-1e
(e=1.6x10^-19C)

9

What is the mass of an electron?

1/2000 of a proton

10

What occurs due to the small masses of protons and electrons?

The electrostatic force of attraction is far greater than the gravitational force of attraction

11

Varying distance from the nucleus, causes what?

Varying levels of electrical potential energy.

12

Which have higher energy, electrons closer to the nucleus or further from the nucleus?

Further from the nucleus

13

What are the valence electrons?

Electrons furthest from the nucleus because they have the strongest interactions with the surrounding environment and weakest interactions with the nucleus

14

Valence electrons are much more likely to be involved in what?

Bonds with other atoms

15

Why are valence electrons more likely to bond with other atoms?

They experience the least electrostatic pull from their own nucleus

16

What do valence electrons determine?

The reactivity of an atom

17

What does the transferring of valence electrons allow?

Elements to fill their highest level to increase stability

18

What is the name of a positively charged atom?

Cation

19

What is the name of a negatively charged atom?

Anion

20

What are the symbols of protons, neutrons and electrons?

Protons: p, p+, 1/1H
Neutron: N^0, 1/0n
Electron: e-, or 0/-1e
See table 1.1

21

Where are electrons found?

Orbitals

22

Which subatomic particle is the most important for determining each of the following properties:
Charge:
Atomic Number:
Isotopes:

Charge: Electrons
Atomic Number: Protons
Isotopes: Neutrons

23

What's the difference between atomic mass and mass #?

Nothing, they are synonymous

24

What is the difference between atomic weight and atomic mass?

Atomic weight is constant for a given element, while mass changes from isotope to isotope

25

What is the definition of atomic mass unit?

1/12 mass of the carbon-12 atom about 1.66x10^-24g.
AMU=Mass of proton or neutron

26

Where might mass be loss in regards to the mass number?

Binding energy

27

What is the greek meaning of isotopes?

Same place

28

How do you refer to an isotope?

The element name followed by the mass number.
Ex: carbon-12

29

What are the three isotopes of hydrogen?

Protium (greek: first) 1 proton + 1AMU
Deuterium (second) 1 proton, 1 neutron, 2AMU
Tritium (third) 1 proton, 2 neutrons, 3 amu

30

In nature almost all elements exist as what?

Two or more isotopes