Flashcards in General Chemistry- Atomic Structure Deck (167)
What are the three subatomic particles?
What is the fundamental unit of charge?
What's the mass of a proton?
1 Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
What is the atomic number?
(Z) or the number of protons found in an atom, of that element.
What charge do neutrons have?
None, they are neutral
What makes up almost the entire mass of an atom?
Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
What is an isotope?
Atoms that share an atomic number, but have different mass numbers
What is the charge of an electron?
What is the mass of an electron?
1/2000 of a proton
What occurs due to the small masses of protons and electrons?
The electrostatic force of attraction is far greater than the gravitational force of attraction
Varying distance from the nucleus, causes what?
Varying levels of electrical potential energy.
Which have higher energy, electrons closer to the nucleus or further from the nucleus?
Further from the nucleus
What are the valence electrons?
Electrons furthest from the nucleus because they have the strongest interactions with the surrounding environment and weakest interactions with the nucleus
Valence electrons are much more likely to be involved in what?
Bonds with other atoms
Why are valence electrons more likely to bond with other atoms?
They experience the least electrostatic pull from their own nucleus
What do valence electrons determine?
The reactivity of an atom
What does the transferring of valence electrons allow?
Elements to fill their highest level to increase stability
What is the name of a positively charged atom?
What is the name of a negatively charged atom?
What are the symbols of protons, neutrons and electrons?
Protons: p, p+, 1/1H
Neutron: N^0, 1/0n
Electron: e-, or 0/-1e
See table 1.1
Where are electrons found?
Which subatomic particle is the most important for determining each of the following properties:
Atomic Number: Protons
What's the difference between atomic mass and mass #?
Nothing, they are synonymous
What is the difference between atomic weight and atomic mass?
Atomic weight is constant for a given element, while mass changes from isotope to isotope
What is the definition of atomic mass unit?
1/12 mass of the carbon-12 atom about 1.66x10^-24g.
AMU=Mass of proton or neutron
Where might mass be loss in regards to the mass number?
What is the greek meaning of isotopes?
How do you refer to an isotope?
The element name followed by the mass number.
What are the three isotopes of hydrogen?
Protium (greek: first) 1 proton + 1AMU
Deuterium (second) 1 proton, 1 neutron, 2AMU
Tritium (third) 1 proton, 2 neutrons, 3 amu