Flashcards in Organic Chemistry- Aldehydes and Ketones I Deck (69)
Aldehydes and ketones both contain what?
What is carbonyl?
A double bond between a carbon and an oxygen
What is the difference between aldehyde and ketone?
Is what is attached to the carbonyl carbon
What is the most common funtional group in organic chemistry? Why?
The carbonyl group
First carbonyl is a component of many different functional groups (carboxylic acid, ester, amides, anhydrides)
The carbonyl has the unique ability to behave as either a nucleophile (as in condensation reactions) or an electrophile (as in nucleophilic addition reactions)
What is a ketone and aldehyde?
Ketone has two alkyl groups bonded to the carbonyl
Aldehyde has one alkyl group and one hydrogen.
Carbonly is never a terminal group in Ketone or Aldehyde?
Aldehyde and ketones are _____ compounds.
Volatile carbonlys are found where? Examples?
In many spices, including cinnamon, vanilla, cumin, dill, and ginger.
How are aldehydes named?
By replacing the -e at the end of the alkane name with the suffix -al
What are the common names for the 1st five aldehydes?
When aldehydes are named as substituents, what should you do?
Use the prefix oxo-
What is the IUPAC name for Formaldehyde?
What is the IUPAC name for acetaldehyde?
What is the IUPAC name for propionaldehyde?
What is the IUPAC name for butyraldehyde?
What is the IUPAC name for valeraldehyde?
How does the name change if the aldehyde is attached to a ring?
The suffix -carbaldehyde is used intead
How are ketones named?
by replacing the -e with the suffix -one
How do you name ketones with their common names?
The two alkyl groups are named alphabetically, followed by -ketone
How does the name change when ketones are named as substituents?
Use the prefix oxo- or keto-
What are the physical properties of ketones and aldehydes governed by?
The presence of the carbonyl group.
The dipole of the carbonyl is stronger than what? Why?
The dipole of an alcohol because the double-bonded oxygen is more electron-withdrawing than the single bond to oxygen in the hydroxyl group
What hppens in solution with the carbonyl dipole?
The dipole moments associated with these polar carbonyl groups increase intermolecular attractions, causing an elevation in boiling point relative to their parent alkanes
Aldehydes and ketones have _____ more _____ than those of alcohol, but the _____ in _____ is less than alcohols because _______.
Have dipoles more polar than those of alcohols, the elevation in boiling point is less than that in alcohols because no hydrogen bonding is present.
In reactions, aldehydes and ketones both act as what? Why?
Aldehydes and ketones both act as electrophiles, making good targets for nucleophiles. This is due to the elecctron-withdrawing properties of the carbonyl oxygen, which leaves a partial positive charge on the carbon.
Generally, aldehydes are more ______ toward ______ than ketones because Why?
Reactive toward nucleophiles than ketones because they have less steric hindrance and fewer electron-donating alkyl groups.
How can aldehydes be produced?
From the partial oxidation of a primary alcohol, although only by pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) With any stronger oxidants, aldehydes will ocntinue to be oxidized to carboxylic acids
How can ketones be produced?
The oxidation of a secondary alcohol. This can be performed using regeants ranging from sodium or potassium dichromate salts, to chromium trioxide, to PCC. When oxidizing a secondary alcohol, there is no concern for oxidizzing too far because the reaction will stop at the ketone stage no matter what.
What is the most important reaction mechanism on the MCAT?
The general reaction mechanism of nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl