Organic Chemistry- Carboxylic Acids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry- Carboxylic Acids Deck (106)
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1

Carboxylic acids with _____ and _____ are some of the most reactive organic molecules on test day.

Carbonyl and hydroxyl groups

2

Carboxylic acids are found in what?

In soups, oils, preservatives, skin care products, clothing, and amino acids

3

Carboxylic acids often have strong what?

Unpleasant odors

4

What are examples of carboxylic acids with strong odors?

Acetic acid (Vinegar)
Propionic acids (swiss cheese)
Butyric acid (rancid butter and body odor)

5

What makes carboxylic acid so interesting and versitile?

They're acids, so they give away protons-- particularly because when they do so, the reamining negative charge resonates between two oxygen atoms, making the anion very stable. Most acidic compounds encoutered in organic chemistry, with pKa between 3 and 6. Carboxylic acids are also excellent at hydrogen bonding, which results in large intermolecular forces and high boiling points.
Finally, carboylic acids are ubiquitous in nature and synthesized by all living organisims.

6

What does a carboxylic acid contain?

Both a carbonyl and a hydroxyl group, bonded to the same carbon

7

Why are carboxylic acids one of the most oxidized groups?

It has three bonds to oxygen atoms, making it one of the most oxidized functional groups encountered in organic chemistry

8

Carboxylic acids are always what?

Terminal groups

9

In the IUPAC system, how are carboxylic acids named?

By adding the suffix -oic acid to the parent root when the carboxylic acid is the highest-priority functional group. When this is true, the carbonyl carbon becomes carbon number 1

10

What is the common name of methanoic acid?

Formic acid

11

What is the common name of ethanoic acid?

Acetic acid

12

What is the common name of propanoic acid?

Propionic acid

13

How are cyclic carboxylic acid named?

By listing the cycloalkane with the suffix carboxylic acid

14

How are salts of carboxylic acids named?

Beginning with the cation, followed by the name of the acid with the ending -oate repalcing -oic acid.

15

Which carboxylic acids are common in biological systems?

Dicarboxylic acids

16

What do dycarboxylic acids contain?

Carboxylic acid group on each end of the molecule

17

What is the smallest dicarboxylic acid?

Oxalic acid with two carbons

18

After oxalic acid, what are the next 5 straight-chain dicarboxylic acids?

Malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, and pimelic acids

19

In the IUPAC system, how are dicarboxylic acids named?

They have the suffix -dioic acid

20

What is the IUPAC name for oxalic acid?

Ethanedioic acid

21

What is the IUPAC name for malonic acid?

Propanedioic acid

22

What is the IUPAC name for Succinic acid?

Butanedioic acid

23

What is the IUPAC name for Glutaric acid?

Pentanedioic acid

24

What is the IUPAC name for adipic acid?

Hexanedioic acid

25

What is the IUPAC name of pimelic acid?

Heptanedioic acid

26

What is an example of cyclic carboxylic acid and carboxylic acid salt?

1-chloro-2-methlcyclo-pentane carboxylic acid (Cyclic)
sodium hexanoate (Salt)

27

Many physical properties of carboxylic acid are similar to what? Why?

To aldehydes and ketones because they both contain carbonyl groups

28

What makes carboxylic acid different from aldehydes and ketones?

The additional hydroxyl group permits carboxylic acids to hydrogen bond and provides another acidic hydrogen that can participate in reactions.

29

Why are carboxylic acids polar?

Because they contain a carbonyl group

30

Why can carboxylic acids form hydrogen bonds?

Because they contain a hydrogen bonded to a very elecronegative atom