Flashcards in Organic Chemistry- Carboxylic Acids Deck (106)
Carboxylic acids with _____ and _____ are some of the most reactive organic molecules on test day.
Carbonyl and hydroxyl groups
Carboxylic acids are found in what?
In soups, oils, preservatives, skin care products, clothing, and amino acids
Carboxylic acids often have strong what?
What are examples of carboxylic acids with strong odors?
Acetic acid (Vinegar)
Propionic acids (swiss cheese)
Butyric acid (rancid butter and body odor)
What makes carboxylic acid so interesting and versitile?
They're acids, so they give away protons-- particularly because when they do so, the reamining negative charge resonates between two oxygen atoms, making the anion very stable. Most acidic compounds encoutered in organic chemistry, with pKa between 3 and 6. Carboxylic acids are also excellent at hydrogen bonding, which results in large intermolecular forces and high boiling points.
Finally, carboylic acids are ubiquitous in nature and synthesized by all living organisims.
What does a carboxylic acid contain?
Both a carbonyl and a hydroxyl group, bonded to the same carbon
Why are carboxylic acids one of the most oxidized groups?
It has three bonds to oxygen atoms, making it one of the most oxidized functional groups encountered in organic chemistry
Carboxylic acids are always what?
In the IUPAC system, how are carboxylic acids named?
By adding the suffix -oic acid to the parent root when the carboxylic acid is the highest-priority functional group. When this is true, the carbonyl carbon becomes carbon number 1
What is the common name of methanoic acid?
What is the common name of ethanoic acid?
What is the common name of propanoic acid?
How are cyclic carboxylic acid named?
By listing the cycloalkane with the suffix carboxylic acid
How are salts of carboxylic acids named?
Beginning with the cation, followed by the name of the acid with the ending -oate repalcing -oic acid.
Which carboxylic acids are common in biological systems?
What do dycarboxylic acids contain?
Carboxylic acid group on each end of the molecule
What is the smallest dicarboxylic acid?
Oxalic acid with two carbons
After oxalic acid, what are the next 5 straight-chain dicarboxylic acids?
Malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, and pimelic acids
In the IUPAC system, how are dicarboxylic acids named?
They have the suffix -dioic acid
What is the IUPAC name for oxalic acid?
What is the IUPAC name for malonic acid?
What is the IUPAC name for Succinic acid?
What is the IUPAC name for Glutaric acid?
What is the IUPAC name for adipic acid?
What is the IUPAC name of pimelic acid?
What is an example of cyclic carboxylic acid and carboxylic acid salt?
1-chloro-2-methlcyclo-pentane carboxylic acid (Cyclic)
sodium hexanoate (Salt)
Many physical properties of carboxylic acid are similar to what? Why?
To aldehydes and ketones because they both contain carbonyl groups
What makes carboxylic acid different from aldehydes and ketones?
The additional hydroxyl group permits carboxylic acids to hydrogen bond and provides another acidic hydrogen that can participate in reactions.
Why are carboxylic acids polar?
Because they contain a carbonyl group