Flashcards in Organic Chemistry- Bonding Deck (67)
What does bonding determine?
How atoms come together to form molecules. It also govers the ways those molecules interact with the other molecules in their environment.
Organic chemistry is the study of what?
Carbon and carbon-containing compounds.
What makes carbon so important?
Carbon has unique bonding properties. Carbon is tetravalent, which means that is can form bonds with up to four other atoms, allowing for the massive versatility required to form the foundation of biomolecules and life itself.
Why can carbon form bonds with many different elements?
Because of its moderate electronegativity
Because carbon atoms are small, the bonds are what?
The bonds are strong and stable
What are the two types of chemical bonds?
What are ionic bonds?
Electrons are transferred from one atom to another and the resulting ions are held together by elecctrostatic interactions
What are covalent bonds?
Electrons are shared between atoms
Organic chemistry usually uses which type of chemical bond?
The 1st three quantum number n, l, ml, describe what?
The size, shape, number, and orientation of atomic orbitals an element possess.
The principle quantum number, n, corresponds to what?
The energy level of a given electron in an atom and is essentially a measure of size
The smaller the principle quantum number, the ________.
The closer the shell is to the nucleus and the lower the energy
The MCAT will most likley on test principle quantum numbers 1 to What?
What is the range for the azimuthal quantum number?
0 to n-1.
The l-values 0,1,2,3 correspond to what?
The s, p, d, f subshells
What increases as the azimuthal quantium number increases?
What is within each subsehll?
Orbitals are described by the what?
Magnetic quantum number
What is the range of the magnetic quantum number?
-1 to +1
An s-orbital is what shape?
Spherical and symetrical, centered around the nucleus
A p-orbital is what shape?
Composed of two lobes located symmetrically about the nucleus and contains a node, an area where the probability of finding an electron is zero- at the nucleus. Picture the p-orbital as a dumbell that can be psotioned in three different orientations. Along the x y and z axsis
A d-orbital is composed of what? What shape?
Four symmetrical lobes and contains two nodes. Four of the d-orbitals are clover shaped, and the fifth looks like a donut wrapped around the center of a p-orbital
Each orbital can hold how many electrons, with what spin quantum numbers?
+1/2 and -1/2
When two atomic orbitals combine, they form what?
How are molecular orbitals obtained?
Mathmatically by adding or subtracting the wave functions of the atomic orbitals.
Will the mathmatics of containing wave functions be tested on the MCAT?
No, but some questions may ask for the visualization of molecular orbitals
If the signs of the wave functions are the same, what will be produced?
Lower-energy (more stable) bonding orbital is produced
If the signs of the wave functions are different, what will be produced?
Higher-energy (Less stable) antibonding orbitals
When a molecular orbital is formed by head-to-head or tail-to tail overlap, the resulting bond is called what?
a sigma bond