Flashcards in Organic Chemistry- Nomenclature Deck (90)
What does IUPAC stand for?
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
What is the primary goal of IUPAC?
To create an unambiguous relationship between the name and structure of a compound.
What does IUPAC establish?
No distinct compounds have the same name
what does IUPAC help to do?
Simplifies chemical naming.
what is the parent chain?
The longest carbon chain containing the highest-order functional group
What does the parent chain help to determine?
The root of the name
What must be considered when identifying the highest-order functional group?
If there are double or triple bonds between carbons, they must be considered when identifying the highest functional group.
What provides the suffix when naming a complex?
The highest-priority functional group (with the most oxidized carbon)
Which carbon chain would you use for the suffix if there were two of equal length?
The more substituted chain gets priority
What are the naming steps?
1. Identify the longest carbon chain containing the highest-order functional group.
2. Number the chain
3. Name the substituents
4. Assign a number to each substituent
5. Complete the name
How do you number a carbon chain?
The carbon numbered 1 will be the one closest to the highest-priority functional group. If the functional groups all have the same priority, numbering the chain should make the numbers of the substituted carbons as low as possible.
What should be kept in mind when numbering carbon chains?
The more oxidized the carbon is, the higher priority it has in the molecule
Oxidation state increases with what?
More bonds to heteroatoms
What are Heteroatoms?
Atoms besides carbon and hydrogen, like oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, or halogens.
Oxidation state decreases with what?
More bonds to hydrogen
How are rings numbered?
Starting at the point of greatest substitution continuing in the direction that gives the lowest numbers to the highest-priority functional groups.
When numbering a chain, what happens if there is a tie between assigning priority in a molecule with double and triple bonds?
If there is a tie, the double bond takes priority
What are substituents?
Functional groups that are not part of the parent chain
When naming a compound, where will a substituent's name be placed?
At the beginning of the compound name as a prefix, followed by the name of the longest chain.
What should be remembered, when choosing the suffix?
Only the highest-priority functional group will determine the suffix for the compound and must be part of the parent chain.
How are carbon chain substituents named? With what suffix?
Named like alkanes, with the suffix -yl replacing -ane
what does the prefix n- indicate?
This is "normal," in other words, a straight-chain alkane.
Will the n- prefix always be present?
No, assume alkane substituents are normal unless specified.
What do you write if there are multiple substituents of the same type, when naming?
Use the prefix di- , tri-, and tetra- .
These prefixes are included directly before the substituent's name.
When assigning a number to the substituents, what do you do?
Pair the substituents that you have already named to the corresponding numbers in the parent chain.
When assigning number to the substituents, what happens if there are multiple substituents of the same type?
They will get di-, tri- or tetra- prefixes and also a carbon number designation
How do you complete the naming of a compound?
Names begin with the names of the substituents in alphabetical order, with each substituent preceeded by it number. Then, the numbers are separated from each other with commas, and from words with hyphens. Finally finish the name with the backbone chain, including the suffix for the functional group of highest-priority.
when completing the naming of a compound, what are ignored while alphabetizing?
The prefixes like di-, tri-, and tetra,
Also hyphenated prefixes like n- and tert- (or t-)
What are included while computing the naming of a compound and alphabetizing?
Nonhyphenated roots that are part of the name, like iso-, neo-, or cyclo-.