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Flashcards in General Chemistry- The Periodic Table Deck (189)
1

What atomic number is lithium (Li)?

3

2

What type of element is Lithium?

Soft Alkali metal

3

What are the specific characteristics of lithium?

Least dense solid element (specific gravity .53)
Does not naturally occur on earth in its elemental form
Found only in various salt compounds

4

Which chemist published the 1st periodic table? When?

Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869

5

What did Dmitri Mendeleev find?

Ordering known elements according to atomic weight revealed a pattern of periodically recurring physical and chemical properties.

6

Who has revised the periodic table?

Henry Moseley

7

How did Henry Moseley revise the periodic table?

Organized the elements based on increasing atomic number rather than atomic weight

8

What did the revision to the periodic table allow?

Elements to be predicted and discovered

9

The periodic table creates a visual representation of what?

The periodic law

10

What is the periodic law?

The chemical and physical properties of the elements are dependent, in a periodic way, upon their atomic number

11

How is the periodic table arranged?

Arranged elements into periods (rows) and groups/families (columns)

12

How many periods does the periodic table have?

7 periods

13

What do the periods represent?

The principal quantum numbers n=1 through n=7 for the s and p block elements

14

What do groups contain?

Elements that have the same electronic configuration in their valence shell and share similar cchemical properties.

15

The elements are recorded how, in the periodic table?

In their neutral state

16

What do the roman numerals represent?

The number of valence electrons elements in that group have in their neutral state.

17

What are "A" elements known as?

The representative elements

18

"A" elements have their valence electrons in which orbitals?

S or p subshells

19

What are "B" elements known as?

Nonrepresentative elements

20

Which groups are associated with "B" elements?

The transitions elements
Lanthanide and actinide series

21

Where are the valence electrons for "B" elements for transition elements and lanthanide/actinide elements?

Transition elements: s and d subhsells
Lanthanide/Actinide: s and f subshells

22

Which elements may have unexpected electron configurations?

The nonrepresentative elements

23

Examples of unexpected electron configurations?

Chromium (4s1 3d5)
Copper (4s1 3d10)

24

Which identification system are the elements not listed under A and B?

IUPAC
Groups are number 1 to 18

25

Mendeleev's table was arranged by atomic weight, but the moder periodic table is arranged by...

Atomic number

26

What are the three categroies of the periodic table?

Metals
Nonmentals
Metalloids (semimetals)

27

Where are the metals found on the periodic table?

The left side and in the middle of the periodic table

28

What do the 3 categroies of metals include?

Active metals
Transitions metals
Lanthanide and actinide series

29

What are the characteristic of metals?

Lustrous (shiny) solids
High melting point and densities
Malleability
Ductility

30

What are the exceptions to some of the characteristic of metals?

Mercury- not lustrous
Lithium- Not high density

31

What is the definition of malleability?

The ability of metal to be hammered into shapes

32

What is the definition of ductility?

Ability to be pulled or drawn into wires

33

How is a metal defined?

A low effective nuclear charge, low electronegativity (high electron positivity), large atomic radius, small ionic radius, low ionization energy and low electron affinity.

34

What causes the manifestation of the characteristics of metals?

The ability of metals to easily give up electrons

35

The transitions metals have how many oxidation states?

2 states

36

What are oxidation states?

Changes when forming bonds with other atoms.

37

Due to loose valence electrons in metals what are metals good at?

Conductors of heat and electricity

38

Active metals are found in which subshell?

s subshell

39

Transitional metals are found in which subshells?

s and d subshells

40

Lanthanide/Actinide metals are found in which subshells?

s and f subshells

41

Which transition metals are not reactive?

Copper, nickel, silver, gold palladium, platinum

42

The nonreactive transition metals are good for what type of production?

Coins
Jewelery

43

Where are nonmetals found on the periodic table?

Predominantly on the upper right side of the periodic table.

44

What are the characterisitic of nonmetals?

Generally brittle in the solid state
Little or no Metallic luster
High ionization energies
Electron affinities
Electronegativities
Small atomic Radii
Large ionic radii
Poor condiuctors of heat and electricity

45

The manifestation of the characteristic in nonmetals results due to what?

Inability of nonmetals to easily give up electrons

46

Compare nonmetals and metals, which are less unified? what properies?

Nonmetals are less unified in
Chemical
Physical properities

47

Where are metalloids on the periodic table?

Separating the metals and nonmetals

48

What is another name for metalloids?

Semimetals

49

Why are they called semimetals?

They share some characteristics with both metals and nonmetals.

50

What are the characteristics of metalloids?

Electronegativities and ionization energies lie between metals and nonmetals
Density, Melting poind, Boiling point vary widely
Combination of metallic and nonmetallic characteristics

51

Which elements are considered metalloids?

Boron (B)
Silicon (Si)
Germanium (Ge)
Arsenic (As)
Antimony (Sb)
Tellurium (Te)
Polonium (Po)
Astatine (At)

52

Which elements are debated over whether they are included as metalloids?

Polonium
Astatine

53

How many key rules are there that control how valence electrons work?

3

54

What is the 1st key rule?

For elements in the same period, effective nuclear charge (Zeff) increase from left to right

55

What is the explanation of the 1st key rule?

As one moves across a period from left to right, electrons and protons are added one at a time. Positivity of the nucleus increase, and the electrons experience a stronger electrostatic pull toward the center of the atom. This causes the electron cloud to move closer and bind more tightly to the nucleus.

56

What is the definition of effective nuclear charge?

Electrostatic attraction between the valence shell electrons and the nucleus, which is a measure of the net positive charge experienced by the outermost elecctrons.

57

How is the pull from the nucleus to the valence electrons mitigated?

Nonvalence electrons that reside closer to the nucleus.

58

How is effective nuclear charge shown, in elements of the same period on the periodic table?

Increasing (Zeff) from left to right

59

What is the second key rule?

As one moves down a group, (Zeff) is remained constant, but valence electrons are held less tightly to the nucelus

60

What is an explanation of the second key rule?

As one moves down the group, the rpincipal quantum number increases by one each time. The valence electrons are increasily separated from the nucleus by a greater number of filled principle energy levels. This separation leads to a reduction in the electrostatic attraction between the valence electrons and the nucleus. Thus, the increasing shielding created by the inner shell electrons cancels the increased positivity of the nucleaus. So, (Zeff) stays constant, while valence electrons are held less tightly.

61

How is the 2nd key rule seen on the periodic table?

As you move down a group, (Zeff) is constant, while Valence electrons are more likely to react or leave an element.

62

What is the 3rd key rule?

Elements can gain or lose electrons in order to achieve a stable octet formation representative of the novle (inert) gases (Group ViiiA or 18) or the Octet Rule.

63

Which elements are stable following the octet rule?

Elements that have biological roles

64

Why is the octet rule not necessarily a rule?

Many exceptions to the rule.

65

What is the atomic radius?

Equal to one-half of the distance between the centers of two atoms of an element that are briefly in contact with each other.

66

How do you measure the atomic radius?

Measure the distance between two atoms of the same element and divide that distance by two.

67

Why can't the radius be measured by examining a single atom?

The electrons are constatly moving around making it impossible to mark the outer boudary of the electron cloud.

68

From left to right on the periodic table, how does the (Zeff) change?

Increases

69

How does atomic radius change on a periodic table from left to right?

Decreases

70

How does the Atomic radius changed down a group on the periodic table?

Increases down a group

71

Where will the largest atom be in a group?

At the bottom

72

Where will the largest atom be in a period?

Group IA or Group 1

73

Which atom has the largest atomic radius?

Cesium

74

Which atom has the smallest atomic radius?

Helium

75

Why is Francium not considered as having the largest atomic radius?

It is exceptionally rare in nature

76

What are the two generalizations made to understand atomic radii?

Metals lose electrons and become positive
Nonmetals gain electrons and become negative
Metalloids can go in either direction, but tend to follow the trend based on which side of the metalloid line they fall.

77

How are the ionic generalizations inferred on the MCAT?

Information found in passages and questions, such as oxidation states in compounds

78

For nonmetals close to the metalloid line, their group number dictates what?

They require more electrons than other nonmetals to achieve the electronic configuration seen in group VIIIA

79

Nonmetals do _______ while the nuclei does __________.

Nonmetals gain electrons while the nuclei maintains the same charge.

80

What ionic radius do nonmetals close to the metalloid line possess, compared to the ionic radius of elements closer to group VIIIA?

Closer to metalloid line possess a larger ionic radius than those closer to group VIIIA

81

Metals are _______ in regards to their ionic radius compared to nonmetals.

Opposite

82

Metals closer to the metalloid line have ________ to achieve the electronic configuration seen in group VIIIA.

To lose more electrons

83

Metals closer to the metalloid line have _________ ionic radius compared to other metals.

Smaller

84

Why do metals in group IA have less reduction in radius during ionization?

Have fewer electrons to lose, thus they have a less drastic reduction in radius during ionization

85

What is ionization energy (IE)?

The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous species.

86

What is another name for ionization energy?

Ionization potential

87

What is an endothermic process?

Requiring an input of heat

88

What is the explanation for increased ionization energy?

The greater the atom's (Zeff) or the closer the vlaence electrons are to the nucleus, the more tightly bound they are. This makes it more difficult to remove one or more electrons, increasing the ionization energy.

89

How can the change in ionization energy be seen on the periodic table?

Ionization energy increases from left to right and bottom to top

90

What is First Ionization Energy?

The energy necessary to remove the first electron

91

What is Second Ionization Energy?

The energy necessary to remove the second electron from the univalent cation (X+) to form the divalent cation (X2+)

92

What are active metals?

Low ionization energy metals or metals in groups IA and IIA (groups 1 and 2)

93

What are two examples of active metals?

Lithium and Beryllium

94

Active metals do not _______.

Exist naturally in their neutral forms

95

How many electrons need to be lost in order to form stable valence shells for alkali and alkaline metals?

One electron for Alkali
Two electrons for Alkaline earth metals

96

Which elements rarely give up electrons?

Halogens (Group VIIA or Group 17)

97

How are the values for second ionization energy for group IA, Group IIA, and Subsequent monovalent cations?

Disproportionally larger for group IA
Not that much larger for Group IIA or subsequent monovalent cations

98

Which elements are the least likely to give up electrons?

Noble gases or inert gases

99

Which elements have the highest ionization energy?

Noble gases

100

Why is the second ionization so much larger for goup IA?

Because Group IA already lost their one valence electron making them have a noble gas like electron configuration. Pulling a second valence electron out is like trying to pull an electron out of a noble gas.

101

Which group is most likely to accept electrons?

Halogens

102

Why are Halogen's so greedy with electrons?

By aquiring one additional electron, a halogen is able to complete its octet and achieve a noble gas configuration.

103

What is an exothermic process?

Expelling energy in the form of heat

104

What is electron Affinity?

The energy dissipated by a gaseous species when it gains an electron

105

What is electron affinity the opposite of?

Ionization energy

106

Why does (Change in (Hrxn)) have a negative sign?

Because it is an exothermic process

107

How is electron affinity reported?

As a positive number because it is the energy dissipated

108

What is the units of electron affinity?

KJ/mol

109

What causes a greater energy release, in regards to electron affinity?

The stronger the electrostatic pull (the higher the (Zeff) between the nucleus and the valence shell electrons, the greater the energy release when the atom gains the electron.

110

How is the change in electron Affinity shown on the periodic table?

Increases across the period from left to right
Decreases from top to bottom.

111

Which groups have a very low electron affinity?

Group IA and IIA (group 1 and 2)

112

Which group has a very high electron affinity?

Group VIIA (Group 17)

113

Do the noble gases have high electron affinity?

No, its closer to zero

114

Why do noble gases have low electron affinities?

They already possess a stable octet and cannot readily accept electrons

115

Which has the lower electron affinities, metals, nonmentals, or metalloids?

Metals

116

What is electronegativity?

A measure of the attractive force that an atom will exert on an electron in a chemical bond.

117

The greather the electronegativity of an atom, the more ________________.

It attracts electrons within a bond

118

What are electronegativity values related to?

Ionization energies

119

The lower the electronegitivity, the ________ the _________.

Lower the ionization energy

120

What elements are exceptions to the electronegativity and ionization rule? Why?

The first three noble gases because despite their high ionization energies, these elements have negligible electronegativity because they do not often form bonds.

121

What is the most common scale to meausre electronegativity?

Pauling electronegativity scale

122

Electronegativity is what?

A relative measure

123

What is the range of the scale used to find electronegativity?

0.7 to 4.0

124

Which are the least and most electronegative elements?

Least: Cesium
Most: Flourine

125

How does electronegativity change on a periodic table?

Increase across a period from left to right
Decreases from top to bottom

126

What are the three increaseing factors on a periodic table from left to right?

Electronegativity
Ionization energy
Electron affinity

127

What is the decreaseing factor on the periodic table from left to right?

Atomic radius

128

What are the increasing factors on a periodic table from bottom to top?

Electronegativity
Ionization energy
Electron affinity

129

What is the decreasing factor on the periodic table from bottom to top?

Atomic radius

130

Which metals are the classic physical properties of metals?

Alkali metals

131

What is the exception to the classic physical properities of metals seen in Alkali metals?

Density is lower than most metals

132

How many loosely bound electrons do the Alkali metas have in there outer most shell?

One

133

What trends are seen in Alkali metals?

(Zeff) values are very low
Largest atomic radii of all elements in their respective periods
Low ionization energies
Low electron affinities
Low electronegativities

134

Alkali metals lose one electron to form what?

Univalent cations

135

Alkali metals react with _________, especially _________.

Nonmetals especially Halogens

136

Alkaline earth metals possess what?

Many properties charateristic of metals

137

What makes Alkaline metals different from Alkali?

Slightly higher effective nuclear charges and thus slightly smaller atomic radii

138

How many valence electrons does Alkaline metals have in the outer most shell?

Two

139

What is formed when both electrons are removed from Alkaline metals?

Divalent Cations

140

Which two metal types make up Active metals? Why?

Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals
They are so reactive that they are not naturally found in their elemental (neutal) state.

141

What are chalcogens?

Group VIA or Group 16
An eclectic group of nonmentals and metalloids

142

What are chalcogens crucial for?

Normal biological functions

143

Chalcogens are not as ______________________ as halogens.

Reactive

144

What are characteristics of Chalcogens?

Six electrons in their valence shell
Small atomic radii
Large ionic radii

145

Why is oxygen the most important?

It is one of the primary consituents of water, carbohydrates, and other biological molecules.

146

Why is sulfur important?

Component in amino acids, and vitamins

147

Why is selenium important?

It is a Nutrient for microorganisms

148

What is important to know about the rest of the Chalcogens?

They are primarily metallic and generally toxic

149

In high concentrations, chalcogens are what?

Toxic or damaging

150

What are halogens?

Group VIIA or 17
Highly reactive nonmetals with seven valeence electrons

151

What are Halogens desperate to do?

Complete their octets by gaining one additional electron

152

The physical properties of halogens are what?

Variable

153

Which halogens are gaseous?

F2 and Cl2

154

Which halogens are liquid?

Br2

155

Which halogens are solid?

I2

156

What is more uniform for the halogens?

Chemical reactivity

157

Due to their high electronegativities and electron affinities, Halogens are what?

Especially reactive twoard the Alkali and Alkaline earth metals

158

Which element has the highest electronegativity?

Flourine

159

Why aren't Halogens found in their elemental state?

They are too reactive

160

What are the ions of Halogens called?

Halides

161

What is another name for noble gases?

Inert gases

162

What are noble gases?

Group VIIIA or Group 18

163

Why are noble gases also called inert gases?

They have minimal chemical reactivity due to their filled valence shells.

164

What do noble gases have in regards th their characterisitics?

High ionization energies,
Little or no tendency to gain or lose electrons
No measureable electronegativities

165

Which elements, in particular to noble gases, have no electronegativities?

He
Ne
Ar

166

What is extremely low in noble gases?

boiling point

167

At room temperatiure, what form do noble gases take?

Gas

168

How are noble gases usually seen throughout the world? Why?

As comercial lighting sources
Their lack of reactivity

169

What are transition metals?

Groups IB to VIIIB or (Groups 3-12)
Metals

170

What is low, in regards to characteristic in transition metals?

Electron affinities
Ionization energies
Electronegativities

171

What characteristics do transition metals have?

Very hard
High melting/boiling points
Quite malleable
Good conductors

172

Why are transition metals good conductors?

Loosely held elctrons that progressively fill the d-orbitals

173

What is a unique property of transition metals?

Many of them can have different oxidation states

174

What is an oxidation state?

Possible charged forms

175

Why can transition metals have different charged forms?

They are capable of losing different numbers of electrons from the s- and d-orbitals in their valence shells.

176

Due to the change in oxidation state of transition metals, what occurs?

Transition metals form many different ionic compounds

177

For transition metals, the oxidation states correspond to what?

Different colors

178

What are the compounds associated with each color when dealing with transition metals and their oxidation states?

Red: Cobalt (II) nitrate- Co(NO3)2
Orange: Potassium Dichromate- K2Cr2O7
Yellow: Potassium chromate- K2CrO4
Green: Nickel(II) chloride-NiCl2
Blue: Copper(II) sulfate- CuSO4
Violet: Potassium Permanganate- KMnO4

179

Complex transition metal ions tend to associate with what two molecules?

Water
Nonmetals

180

What are complex ions associated with water called?

Hydration complexes

181

What is an example of hydration complex, associated with transition metals?

CuSO4-5 H2O

182

What is an example of a complex ion associated with a nonmetal, in regards to transition metals?

[Co(NH3)6]Cl

183

AgCl is soluable in _______, not soluable in _______.

Aqueous ammonia (due to the formation of the complex ion [Ag(NH3)2]+
Water

184

The formation of complexes, for transition metals, causes what?

The d-orbitals to split into two energy sublevels

185

The two energy sublevels of transition metals allows complexes to do what?

Enables many of the complexes to absorb certain frequencies of light

186

Which frequencies give the transition meta's complexes their characteristic color?

The frequencies not absorbed give the complexes their characteristic colors

187

What is subtraction frequencies?

Frequencies not absorbed

188

When we perceive an object as a particular color, what is it due to?

That color is not absorbed, but rather reflected by to you by the object.

189

What does our brain tend to mix when visualizing a transition metal?

The subtraction frequencies with their complementary color or the frequency absorbed.