Flashcards in General Chemistry- Bonding and Chemical Interactions Deck (180)
Most atoms can form what?
What atoms are the exception to forming molecules?
The noble gases
How are the atoms in molecules held together?
What are chemical bonds?
Strong attractive forces
How are chemical bonds formed?
The interaction of the valence electrons of the combining atoms.
Compounds usually have similar or different chemical and physical properties as the elements that make them up?
For many molecules, the atoms combine based on what rule?
What is the octet rule?
An atom tends to bond with other atoms so that it has eight electrons in its outermost shell, thereby forming a stable electron configuration similar to that of the noble gases
Why is the octet rule on a rule of thumb?
There are more elements that can be exceptions to the rule than those that follow the rule.
Which elements are exceptions to the octet rule?
All elements in period 3 and greater
Which elements are stable with fewer than 8 electrons?
Which elements are stable with an expanded octet?
Elements in period 3 or greater
What elements are another example of an exception to the octet rule?
An molecule with an odd number of valence electrons cannot distribute those electrons to give eight to each atom.
What is an example of an odd number molecule?
Nitric Oxide (NO)- (11)
What are the common elements that almost always abide by the octet rule?
What are the two types of chemical bonds?
What occurs during ionic bonding?
One or more electrons from an atom with a low ionization energy, typically a metal, are transferred to an atom with a high electron affinity, typically a nonmetal.
What holds the ionic bonds togethere?
Electrostatic attraction between opposite charges
The electrostatic attraction in ionic bonds creates what?
Lattice structures consisting of repeating rows of cations and anions, rather than individual molecular bonds
What occurs in covalent bonding?
An electron pair is shared between two atoms, typically nonmetals, that have relatively similar values of electronegativity.
What determines the polarity in a covalent bond?
The degree to which the pair of electrons is shared equally or unequally between the two atoms
If the electron pair is shared equally in a covalent bond, it is _________?
If the electron pair is shared unequally, the bond is ________________?
When is a bond called coordinate covalent?
If both of the shared electrons are contributed by only one of the two atoms
What is an example of nonpolar covalent bonding?
What do covalent compounds consist of?
Individually bonded molecules
Ionic bonds form between atoms that have ___________ ________.
Significantly different electronegativities
The atoms become what in ionic bonding?
cations and anions
The ionic bond is the result of ___________?
Electrostatic force of attraction between the opposite charges of these ions.