General Chemistry- Bonding and Chemical Interactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General Chemistry- Bonding and Chemical Interactions Deck (180)
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1

Most atoms can form what?

Molecules

2

What atoms are the exception to forming molecules?

The noble gases

3

How are the atoms in molecules held together?

Chemical bonds

4

What are chemical bonds?

Strong attractive forces

5

How are chemical bonds formed?

The interaction of the valence electrons of the combining atoms.

6

Compounds usually have similar or different chemical and physical properties as the elements that make them up?

Very different

7

For many molecules, the atoms combine based on what rule?

Octet rule

8

What is the octet rule?

An atom tends to bond with other atoms so that it has eight electrons in its outermost shell, thereby forming a stable electron configuration similar to that of the noble gases

9

Why is the octet rule on a rule of thumb?

There are more elements that can be exceptions to the rule than those that follow the rule.

10

Which elements are exceptions to the octet rule?

Hydrogen
Lithium
Beryllium
Boron
All elements in period 3 and greater

11

Which elements are stable with fewer than 8 electrons?

Hydrogen (2)
Helium (2)
Lithium (2)
Beryllium (4)
Boron (6)

12

Which elements are stable with an expanded octet?

Elements in period 3 or greater
Phosphorus (10)
Sulfar (12)
Chlorine (14)

13

What elements are another example of an exception to the octet rule?

An molecule with an odd number of valence electrons cannot distribute those electrons to give eight to each atom.

14

What is an example of an odd number molecule?

Nitric Oxide (NO)- (11)

15

What are the common elements that almost always abide by the octet rule?

Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Sodium
Magnesium

16

What are the two types of chemical bonds?

Ionic
Covalent

17

What occurs during ionic bonding?

One or more electrons from an atom with a low ionization energy, typically a metal, are transferred to an atom with a high electron affinity, typically a nonmetal.

18

What holds the ionic bonds togethere?

Electrostatic attraction between opposite charges

19

The electrostatic attraction in ionic bonds creates what?

Lattice structures consisting of repeating rows of cations and anions, rather than individual molecular bonds

20

What occurs in covalent bonding?

An electron pair is shared between two atoms, typically nonmetals, that have relatively similar values of electronegativity.

21

What determines the polarity in a covalent bond?

The degree to which the pair of electrons is shared equally or unequally between the two atoms

22

If the electron pair is shared equally in a covalent bond, it is _________?

Nonpolar

23

If the electron pair is shared unequally, the bond is ________________?

Polar

24

When is a bond called coordinate covalent?

If both of the shared electrons are contributed by only one of the two atoms

25

What is an example of nonpolar covalent bonding?

Diatomic fluorine

26

What do covalent compounds consist of?

Individually bonded molecules

27

Ionic bonds form between atoms that have ___________ ________.

Significantly different electronegativities

28

The atoms become what in ionic bonding?

cations and anions

29

The ionic bond is the result of ___________?

Electrostatic force of attraction between the opposite charges of these ions.

30

What are not shared in ionic bonds?

Electrons