General Chemistry- The Periodic Table Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General Chemistry- The Periodic Table Deck (189)
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31

What is the definition of malleability?

The ability of metal to be hammered into shapes

32

What is the definition of ductility?

Ability to be pulled or drawn into wires

33

How is a metal defined?

A low effective nuclear charge, low electronegativity (high electron positivity), large atomic radius, small ionic radius, low ionization energy and low electron affinity.

34

What causes the manifestation of the characteristics of metals?

The ability of metals to easily give up electrons

35

The transitions metals have how many oxidation states?

2 states

36

What are oxidation states?

Changes when forming bonds with other atoms.

37

Due to loose valence electrons in metals what are metals good at?

Conductors of heat and electricity

38

Active metals are found in which subshell?

s subshell

39

Transitional metals are found in which subshells?

s and d subshells

40

Lanthanide/Actinide metals are found in which subshells?

s and f subshells

41

Which transition metals are not reactive?

Copper, nickel, silver, gold palladium, platinum

42

The nonreactive transition metals are good for what type of production?

Coins
Jewelery

43

Where are nonmetals found on the periodic table?

Predominantly on the upper right side of the periodic table.

44

What are the characterisitic of nonmetals?

Generally brittle in the solid state
Little or no Metallic luster
High ionization energies
Electron affinities
Electronegativities
Small atomic Radii
Large ionic radii
Poor condiuctors of heat and electricity

45

The manifestation of the characteristic in nonmetals results due to what?

Inability of nonmetals to easily give up electrons

46

Compare nonmetals and metals, which are less unified? what properies?

Nonmetals are less unified in
Chemical
Physical properities

47

Where are metalloids on the periodic table?

Separating the metals and nonmetals

48

What is another name for metalloids?

Semimetals

49

Why are they called semimetals?

They share some characteristics with both metals and nonmetals.

50

What are the characteristics of metalloids?

Electronegativities and ionization energies lie between metals and nonmetals
Density, Melting poind, Boiling point vary widely
Combination of metallic and nonmetallic characteristics

51

Which elements are considered metalloids?

Boron (B)
Silicon (Si)
Germanium (Ge)
Arsenic (As)
Antimony (Sb)
Tellurium (Te)
Polonium (Po)
Astatine (At)

52

Which elements are debated over whether they are included as metalloids?

Polonium
Astatine

53

How many key rules are there that control how valence electrons work?

3

54

What is the 1st key rule?

For elements in the same period, effective nuclear charge (Zeff) increase from left to right

55

What is the explanation of the 1st key rule?

As one moves across a period from left to right, electrons and protons are added one at a time. Positivity of the nucleus increase, and the electrons experience a stronger electrostatic pull toward the center of the atom. This causes the electron cloud to move closer and bind more tightly to the nucleus.

56

What is the definition of effective nuclear charge?

Electrostatic attraction between the valence shell electrons and the nucleus, which is a measure of the net positive charge experienced by the outermost elecctrons.

57

How is the pull from the nucleus to the valence electrons mitigated?

Nonvalence electrons that reside closer to the nucleus.

58

How is effective nuclear charge shown, in elements of the same period on the periodic table?

Increasing (Zeff) from left to right

59

What is the second key rule?

As one moves down a group, (Zeff) is remained constant, but valence electrons are held less tightly to the nucelus

60

What is an explanation of the second key rule?

As one moves down the group, the rpincipal quantum number increases by one each time. The valence electrons are increasily separated from the nucleus by a greater number of filled principle energy levels. This separation leads to a reduction in the electrostatic attraction between the valence electrons and the nucleus. Thus, the increasing shielding created by the inner shell electrons cancels the increased positivity of the nucleaus. So, (Zeff) stays constant, while valence electrons are held less tightly.