Flashcards in General Chemistry- The Periodic Table Deck (189)
How is the 2nd key rule seen on the periodic table?
As you move down a group, (Zeff) is constant, while Valence electrons are more likely to react or leave an element.
What is the 3rd key rule?
Elements can gain or lose electrons in order to achieve a stable octet formation representative of the novle (inert) gases (Group ViiiA or 18) or the Octet Rule.
Which elements are stable following the octet rule?
Elements that have biological roles
Why is the octet rule not necessarily a rule?
Many exceptions to the rule.
What is the atomic radius?
Equal to one-half of the distance between the centers of two atoms of an element that are briefly in contact with each other.
How do you measure the atomic radius?
Measure the distance between two atoms of the same element and divide that distance by two.
Why can't the radius be measured by examining a single atom?
The electrons are constatly moving around making it impossible to mark the outer boudary of the electron cloud.
From left to right on the periodic table, how does the (Zeff) change?
How does atomic radius change on a periodic table from left to right?
How does the Atomic radius changed down a group on the periodic table?
Increases down a group
Where will the largest atom be in a group?
At the bottom
Where will the largest atom be in a period?
Group IA or Group 1
Which atom has the largest atomic radius?
Which atom has the smallest atomic radius?
Why is Francium not considered as having the largest atomic radius?
It is exceptionally rare in nature
What are the two generalizations made to understand atomic radii?
Metals lose electrons and become positive
Nonmetals gain electrons and become negative
Metalloids can go in either direction, but tend to follow the trend based on which side of the metalloid line they fall.
How are the ionic generalizations inferred on the MCAT?
Information found in passages and questions, such as oxidation states in compounds
For nonmetals close to the metalloid line, their group number dictates what?
They require more electrons than other nonmetals to achieve the electronic configuration seen in group VIIIA
Nonmetals do _______ while the nuclei does __________.
Nonmetals gain electrons while the nuclei maintains the same charge.
What ionic radius do nonmetals close to the metalloid line possess, compared to the ionic radius of elements closer to group VIIIA?
Closer to metalloid line possess a larger ionic radius than those closer to group VIIIA
Metals are _______ in regards to their ionic radius compared to nonmetals.
Metals closer to the metalloid line have ________ to achieve the electronic configuration seen in group VIIIA.
To lose more electrons
Metals closer to the metalloid line have _________ ionic radius compared to other metals.
Why do metals in group IA have less reduction in radius during ionization?
Have fewer electrons to lose, thus they have a less drastic reduction in radius during ionization
What is ionization energy (IE)?
The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous species.
What is another name for ionization energy?
What is an endothermic process?
Requiring an input of heat
What is the explanation for increased ionization energy?
The greater the atom's (Zeff) or the closer the vlaence electrons are to the nucleus, the more tightly bound they are. This makes it more difficult to remove one or more electrons, increasing the ionization energy.
How can the change in ionization energy be seen on the periodic table?
Ionization energy increases from left to right and bottom to top