Flashcards in General Chemistry- The Periodic Table Deck (189)
What is Second Ionization Energy?
The energy necessary to remove the second electron from the univalent cation (X+) to form the divalent cation (X2+)
What are active metals?
Low ionization energy metals or metals in groups IA and IIA (groups 1 and 2)
What are two examples of active metals?
Lithium and Beryllium
Active metals do not _______.
Exist naturally in their neutral forms
How many electrons need to be lost in order to form stable valence shells for alkali and alkaline metals?
One electron for Alkali
Two electrons for Alkaline earth metals
Which elements rarely give up electrons?
Halogens (Group VIIA or Group 17)
How are the values for second ionization energy for group IA, Group IIA, and Subsequent monovalent cations?
Disproportionally larger for group IA
Not that much larger for Group IIA or subsequent monovalent cations
Which elements are the least likely to give up electrons?
Noble gases or inert gases
Which elements have the highest ionization energy?
Why is the second ionization so much larger for goup IA?
Because Group IA already lost their one valence electron making them have a noble gas like electron configuration. Pulling a second valence electron out is like trying to pull an electron out of a noble gas.
Which group is most likely to accept electrons?
Why are Halogen's so greedy with electrons?
By aquiring one additional electron, a halogen is able to complete its octet and achieve a noble gas configuration.
What is an exothermic process?
Expelling energy in the form of heat
What is electron Affinity?
The energy dissipated by a gaseous species when it gains an electron
What is electron affinity the opposite of?
Why does (Change in (Hrxn)) have a negative sign?
Because it is an exothermic process
How is electron affinity reported?
As a positive number because it is the energy dissipated
What is the units of electron affinity?
What causes a greater energy release, in regards to electron affinity?
The stronger the electrostatic pull (the higher the (Zeff) between the nucleus and the valence shell electrons, the greater the energy release when the atom gains the electron.
How is the change in electron Affinity shown on the periodic table?
Increases across the period from left to right
Decreases from top to bottom.
Which groups have a very low electron affinity?
Group IA and IIA (group 1 and 2)
Which group has a very high electron affinity?
Group VIIA (Group 17)
Do the noble gases have high electron affinity?
No, its closer to zero
Why do noble gases have low electron affinities?
They already possess a stable octet and cannot readily accept electrons
Which has the lower electron affinities, metals, nonmentals, or metalloids?
What is electronegativity?
A measure of the attractive force that an atom will exert on an electron in a chemical bond.
The greather the electronegativity of an atom, the more ________________.
It attracts electrons within a bond
What are electronegativity values related to?
The lower the electronegitivity, the ________ the _________.
Lower the ionization energy