General Chemistry- The Periodic Table Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General Chemistry- The Periodic Table Deck (189)
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91

What is Second Ionization Energy?

The energy necessary to remove the second electron from the univalent cation (X+) to form the divalent cation (X2+)

92

What are active metals?

Low ionization energy metals or metals in groups IA and IIA (groups 1 and 2)

93

What are two examples of active metals?

Lithium and Beryllium

94

Active metals do not _______.

Exist naturally in their neutral forms

95

How many electrons need to be lost in order to form stable valence shells for alkali and alkaline metals?

One electron for Alkali
Two electrons for Alkaline earth metals

96

Which elements rarely give up electrons?

Halogens (Group VIIA or Group 17)

97

How are the values for second ionization energy for group IA, Group IIA, and Subsequent monovalent cations?

Disproportionally larger for group IA
Not that much larger for Group IIA or subsequent monovalent cations

98

Which elements are the least likely to give up electrons?

Noble gases or inert gases

99

Which elements have the highest ionization energy?

Noble gases

100

Why is the second ionization so much larger for goup IA?

Because Group IA already lost their one valence electron making them have a noble gas like electron configuration. Pulling a second valence electron out is like trying to pull an electron out of a noble gas.

101

Which group is most likely to accept electrons?

Halogens

102

Why are Halogen's so greedy with electrons?

By aquiring one additional electron, a halogen is able to complete its octet and achieve a noble gas configuration.

103

What is an exothermic process?

Expelling energy in the form of heat

104

What is electron Affinity?

The energy dissipated by a gaseous species when it gains an electron

105

What is electron affinity the opposite of?

Ionization energy

106

Why does (Change in (Hrxn)) have a negative sign?

Because it is an exothermic process

107

How is electron affinity reported?

As a positive number because it is the energy dissipated

108

What is the units of electron affinity?

KJ/mol

109

What causes a greater energy release, in regards to electron affinity?

The stronger the electrostatic pull (the higher the (Zeff) between the nucleus and the valence shell electrons, the greater the energy release when the atom gains the electron.

110

How is the change in electron Affinity shown on the periodic table?

Increases across the period from left to right
Decreases from top to bottom.

111

Which groups have a very low electron affinity?

Group IA and IIA (group 1 and 2)

112

Which group has a very high electron affinity?

Group VIIA (Group 17)

113

Do the noble gases have high electron affinity?

No, its closer to zero

114

Why do noble gases have low electron affinities?

They already possess a stable octet and cannot readily accept electrons

115

Which has the lower electron affinities, metals, nonmentals, or metalloids?

Metals

116

What is electronegativity?

A measure of the attractive force that an atom will exert on an electron in a chemical bond.

117

The greather the electronegativity of an atom, the more ________________.

It attracts electrons within a bond

118

What are electronegativity values related to?

Ionization energies

119

The lower the electronegitivity, the ________ the _________.

Lower the ionization energy

120

What elements are exceptions to the electronegativity and ionization rule? Why?

The first three noble gases because despite their high ionization energies, these elements have negligible electronegativity because they do not often form bonds.