Flashcards in General Chemistry- The Periodic Table Deck (189)
What are Halogens desperate to do?
Complete their octets by gaining one additional electron
The physical properties of halogens are what?
Which halogens are gaseous?
F2 and Cl2
Which halogens are liquid?
Which halogens are solid?
What is more uniform for the halogens?
Due to their high electronegativities and electron affinities, Halogens are what?
Especially reactive twoard the Alkali and Alkaline earth metals
Which element has the highest electronegativity?
Why aren't Halogens found in their elemental state?
They are too reactive
What are the ions of Halogens called?
What is another name for noble gases?
What are noble gases?
Group VIIIA or Group 18
Why are noble gases also called inert gases?
They have minimal chemical reactivity due to their filled valence shells.
What do noble gases have in regards th their characterisitics?
High ionization energies,
Little or no tendency to gain or lose electrons
No measureable electronegativities
Which elements, in particular to noble gases, have no electronegativities?
What is extremely low in noble gases?
At room temperatiure, what form do noble gases take?
How are noble gases usually seen throughout the world? Why?
As comercial lighting sources
Their lack of reactivity
What are transition metals?
Groups IB to VIIIB or (Groups 3-12)
What is low, in regards to characteristic in transition metals?
What characteristics do transition metals have?
High melting/boiling points
Why are transition metals good conductors?
Loosely held elctrons that progressively fill the d-orbitals
What is a unique property of transition metals?
Many of them can have different oxidation states
What is an oxidation state?
Possible charged forms
Why can transition metals have different charged forms?
They are capable of losing different numbers of electrons from the s- and d-orbitals in their valence shells.
Due to the change in oxidation state of transition metals, what occurs?
Transition metals form many different ionic compounds
For transition metals, the oxidation states correspond to what?
What are the compounds associated with each color when dealing with transition metals and their oxidation states?
Red: Cobalt (II) nitrate- Co(NO3)2
Orange: Potassium Dichromate- K2Cr2O7
Yellow: Potassium chromate- K2CrO4
Green: Nickel(II) chloride-NiCl2
Blue: Copper(II) sulfate- CuSO4
Violet: Potassium Permanganate- KMnO4
Complex transition metal ions tend to associate with what two molecules?