General Chemistry- The Periodic Table Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General Chemistry- The Periodic Table Deck (189)
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151

What are Halogens desperate to do?

Complete their octets by gaining one additional electron

152

The physical properties of halogens are what?

Variable

153

Which halogens are gaseous?

F2 and Cl2

154

Which halogens are liquid?

Br2

155

Which halogens are solid?

I2

156

What is more uniform for the halogens?

Chemical reactivity

157

Due to their high electronegativities and electron affinities, Halogens are what?

Especially reactive twoard the Alkali and Alkaline earth metals

158

Which element has the highest electronegativity?

Flourine

159

Why aren't Halogens found in their elemental state?

They are too reactive

160

What are the ions of Halogens called?

Halides

161

What is another name for noble gases?

Inert gases

162

What are noble gases?

Group VIIIA or Group 18

163

Why are noble gases also called inert gases?

They have minimal chemical reactivity due to their filled valence shells.

164

What do noble gases have in regards th their characterisitics?

High ionization energies,
Little or no tendency to gain or lose electrons
No measureable electronegativities

165

Which elements, in particular to noble gases, have no electronegativities?

He
Ne
Ar

166

What is extremely low in noble gases?

boiling point

167

At room temperatiure, what form do noble gases take?

Gas

168

How are noble gases usually seen throughout the world? Why?

As comercial lighting sources
Their lack of reactivity

169

What are transition metals?

Groups IB to VIIIB or (Groups 3-12)
Metals

170

What is low, in regards to characteristic in transition metals?

Electron affinities
Ionization energies
Electronegativities

171

What characteristics do transition metals have?

Very hard
High melting/boiling points
Quite malleable
Good conductors

172

Why are transition metals good conductors?

Loosely held elctrons that progressively fill the d-orbitals

173

What is a unique property of transition metals?

Many of them can have different oxidation states

174

What is an oxidation state?

Possible charged forms

175

Why can transition metals have different charged forms?

They are capable of losing different numbers of electrons from the s- and d-orbitals in their valence shells.

176

Due to the change in oxidation state of transition metals, what occurs?

Transition metals form many different ionic compounds

177

For transition metals, the oxidation states correspond to what?

Different colors

178

What are the compounds associated with each color when dealing with transition metals and their oxidation states?

Red: Cobalt (II) nitrate- Co(NO3)2
Orange: Potassium Dichromate- K2Cr2O7
Yellow: Potassium chromate- K2CrO4
Green: Nickel(II) chloride-NiCl2
Blue: Copper(II) sulfate- CuSO4
Violet: Potassium Permanganate- KMnO4

179

Complex transition metal ions tend to associate with what two molecules?

Water
Nonmetals

180

What are complex ions associated with water called?

Hydration complexes