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Animal Breeding Exam > Horse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Horse Deck (75)
1

How can you diagnose pregnancy?

No heat
Clinical signs (vaginal and rectal examination)
Hormone measurement (eCG, P4)
Ultrasound (14-45 days)

2

Basic colour is determined by

W, G, E and A

3

What are some general characteristics of hot/warmblood horse breeds?

Narrow back, defined withers
Fine skeleton, long legs, above 150cm wither height
Long hindquarters for speed
Minimal feathering
High feed demand -> struggle to maintain weight
400-500 kg

4

What is the agouti (A) gene?

Distribution of black colour hair

5

What are 5 advantages of artificial insemination?

Reduces spread of venereal disease
International breeding programs are possible
Less stress by traveling
More mares can be mated with a valuable stallion
Allows line breeding (semen can be stored after death)

6

What was the warmblood bred for?

to be warm hehe
Carriage horses (17th/18th century)

7

What is SCID and who can have it?

Severe combined immunodeficiency
Frameshift mutation
Poor T- and B-lymphocyt function, immunodeficiency, death of foal after colostrum protection ceases
Arab horses

8

What is grey (G) gene?

Exclusion of pigment from hair over time (born dark, lightens with age)

9

Blood refreshment

Crossing of individuals of same breed but different familial lines to increase vigor (physical strength and good health)

10

Where are most cold blooded/heavy draft horses from?

France, Germany, Great Britain

11

What is the white (W) gene?

Inability to form pigment
WW homozygotes is embryonic lethal

12

Gelding

Male castrated horse of any age

13

What is gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)?

A mare’s ovum and a stallion’s sperm is inserted into a surrogate mare’s oviduct (useful for us fertile stallions with low sperm count)

14

What genes can lead to haemophilia?

WW (white) and OO (ovaro white spotting)

15

What is the Latin name for a horse?

Equus caballus

16

Name some trotters (7)

Orlow trotter
American standardbred
Russian trotter (Orlow x American standardbred)
Hungarian trotter (nearly extinct)
Hackney
Morgan
Cleveland bay

17

Give the general characteristics of ponies

Generally cold blooded
Any horse under 14 hands (142 cm)
Thick coats, manes, tails, lower limb feathering
High endurance, mild temper, long life span

18

What are some health issues of the Thoroughbreds?

High fatality in racing
Bleeding from lungs
Low fertility
Relatively small hearts
Small hoof:body mass ratio

19

What are the 8 most important genetic diseases of the horse?

Haemophilia
Lethal white ovaro
Melanomatosis
HYPP
SCID
EPSM
HERDA
GBED

20

Name some coldblooded breeds

GB:
Suffolk punch, Shire, Clydesdale
Fr:
Percheron, Comtois, Boulonnais, Breton, Ardennais
Blg:
Brabant
Ger:
Schelswig, Rhein-Westphalen, Schwarzwald

21

What is hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA)?

Autosomal recessive
Collagen defect: layers of skin are not held firmly together

22

What is embryo transfer?

Flushing out a mares newly fertilized egg and inserting it into a surrogate which is in the same phase of the estrus cycle as the donor mare

23

What are the 4 Tapan subspecies?

Warmblood
Oriental
Draft
Tarpan

24

Suckling

A nursing foal

25

Name some thoroughbred blooded sport horses (Hungarian). Name the most winning flat race horse

Gidran (Hungarian anglo-arab)
Fusioso-north star
Noniusz
Kisber

Kincsem
Thoroughbred Hungarian chestnut mare
54/54 wins

26

What’s the name of the offspring when you breed a male donkey and a mare?

Mule

27

What causes lethal white ovaro (LWO)?

TC to AG nucleotide mutation in endothelin B receptor gene

28

What is the melanin extension/non-extension? (E)

Extension of red pigments (red, chestnut, sorrel) ee = ability to produce black pigment in skin, appears red in hairs

29

What was the Thoroughbred bred for?

to be thorough ehhehe no but ultimate racehorse (Britain 1700)

30

Foal

Less than a year old

31

What is glycogen branching enzyme deficiency? (GBED)

No glycogen storage: cardiac and skeletal muscles cannot function --> death

32

What are 6 signs that the mare is in heat?

Relaxed hyperaemic external genitals
Frequent urination
Raising tail
Mucous discharge
Presenting itself to stallion
Teasing of other mares

33

Is the horse
uniparous
biparous
multiparous?

Uniparous --> only releases one ovum and produces one offspring

34

When is the eCG production?

days 31-120

35

What are some important Spanish horses and Spanish blooded descendants? except American

Andalusian
Lusitano
Lipizzaner
Friesian
Knapstrup
ALL Foals Know

36

What is HYPP?

Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis
Missense point mutation: autosomal dominant
Signs: disturbed Na-channel function in skeletal muscle, hyperkalaemia, lameness, muscle weakness, paralysis and twitching

37

Where does fertilization happen?

Fallopian tube

38

Weanling

A foal that has been weaned (no longer fed breastmilk)

39

What are some haute ecole dressage thingies? Name 5
Where are they taught?

Piaffe
Levade
Courbette
Capriole
Croupade
Taught in Spanish riding school in Vienna

40

What is egg transfer?

An oocyte is removed from a mare’s follicle and transferred into the oviduct of a surrogate mare, which is then bred with a stallion

41

When does a horse hit puberty?

16-18 months

42

Name some general features of coldbloods

Large, strong, heavy (1000kg)
High cannon girth, short legs
Thick mane, tail, lower limb feathering
Short life span, low withers, broad back
Quiet temperament
Used for their strength and meat production

43

What is the only surviving wild horse breed?

Przewalski’s horse

44

Interspecies hybrids

Mule and hinny/jennet

45

What happens if a horse has melanomatosis of grey horses?

Disorder of melanocyte migration
Benign melanomas in grey horses 15 years +, around eyes, vagina, anus and on skin

46

Grading up

Regular crossings throughout more generations to improve the breed or produce a new breed

47

Chromosome number:
Wild horse
Domesticated horse
Donkey

66
64
62

48

What are modified variants of the three basic colours?

Roan, grey

49

When will the mare have placental estrogens in her blood?

4-5 months onwards

50

Yearling

Between one and two years old

51

Ancestor of horse

Tarpan with 4 subspecies

52

What is the average age of sexual maturity?

3-5 years

53

What’s the name of the offspring when you breed a female zebra with a stallion?

Hinny/jennet

54

What colour genes are dominant?

W and G

55

What is equine polysaccharide storage myopathy? (EPSM) and what breeds can get it?

Metabolic muscular condition that can occur from being tied up. Related to glycogen storage disorder. Seen in Quarter horses

56

How long is the period covered by horse evolution?

60 million years

57

Earliest documentation of horse breeding?

Arabian horse, by Bendouin in Middle East at 1330 A.D

58

What are some American descendants of Spanish breeds?

Mustang (feral)
Appaloosa
Quarter horse
American pinto
Peruvian paso
My American Quacks At Pizza

59

When we’re horses domesticated?

5-6000 years ago

60

What is the roan (R) gene?

Mixing of dark and light hairs
Black, blue, bay and red roan
Dun horses

61

What are some important warmblood breeds?

Arabian
Barb
Anglo-Arabian
Akhal-Teke
Tersk
Russian Don
A Blue Army Ate Ten Rocks

62

What is the gestation period for the mare?

336 days

63

Single crossing

One-time crossing

64

Synthetic breeds

A planned gene pool of a horse breed

65

What are the qualitative/monogenic basic colours of the horse?

Black, bay (brown), chestnut

66

What horse breeds can get LWO?

Paint
Pinto
Quarter horse
English Thoroughbred
Miniature horse breeds

67

S
P
O
T

Spotting
Piebald/Skewbald
Ovaro spotted
Tobiano

68

Colt
Filly

Male under age of four
Female under age of four

69

What are two types of pure breeding?

Inbreeding (should not exceed 0.1-0.3)
Line breeding: repeated backcrossing for fixing a certain trait)

70

Terminal crossings

Utilizes heterosis

71

Give some pony breeds

Shetland
Welsh pony
Exmoor, Dartmoor (Celtic)
Connemara (Irish)
Fell and Dales - sport type
New forest
Icelandic horse (gaited - tølt)
Fjording (Norwegian dun purebred horse)
Heck horse
Curly horse

72

What happens if a horse has LWO?

Lack of colon ganglions:
Colic and flatulence in foal
Death of homozygotes

73

What breeds can get HYPP?

Quarter horse, paint and appaloosa breeds

74

What are 6 types of cross breeding?

Blood refreshment
Single crossing
Grading up
Synthetic breeds
Terminal crossings
Interspecies hybrids

75

Mare
Stallion

Female over age of four
Male over age of four