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Flashcards in Sheep and Goat Deck (59)
1

What is the latin name for sheep and goat

Sheep: Ovis Aries
Goat: Capra aegagrus hircus

2

When was sheep/goat domesticated?

8-10,000 B.C.

3

Which sheep species is the main ancester of the domesticated sheep?

The mouflon (Oriental wild sheep)

4

Can you cross a sheep with a goat?

ram x doe is possible
bock x ewe never

5

What is a geep?

A sheep/goat hybrid
Artificial chimera (4 parents)
1984

6

Where was the sheep/goat first domesticated?

Mesopotamia

7

Give some microevolutionary changes
Coat and wool
Tail
Horns
Intelligence

Coat and wool
Wide variations in colour
Tail
Short/long/fat
Horns
Some are polled (sex influenced)
Intelligence
Sheep are neotenic and dependent on humans

8

Give important differences between sheep and goat

1 Nutrition
2 Body conformation
3 Flocking instinct
4 Milk production

1 G is less selective than S, but has a higher dig efficiency
2 G has split upper lip and beard
3 S has a stronger flocking instinct than G
4 S has less efficient milk prod, more suitable for cheese
Goat milk is commonly consumed

9

What is
Ewe
Gimmer/Theave

Ewe: female mature sheep
Gimmer: young female before lambing

10

What is
Ram/Tup
Wether
Stag

Ram/Tup: uncastrated male sheep
Wether: castrated sheep/goat
Stag: male castrated after 6 months

11

What is (lamb)
Sucker
Hogget
Shearling

Sucker: unweaned
Hogget: 9-18 months
Shearling: yearling before first shearling

12

What is mutton

Meat of 1yr+ sheep (in some countries = goat meat)

13

How can you identify sheep

Raddle: coloured pigment

14

When is the mating season and lambing season?

Mating: fall
Gestation: 6 months
Lambing: early spring (Norway: easter)

15

The milk of what species are appropriate for cheese making

Cow, sheep, goat

16

What is special about the milk of a horse?

High lactose content

17

What dairy products are made from sheeps milk?

Feta, Roquefort, Manchego, Ricotta
(High casein content)

18

What dairy products are made from goat milk?

Goat cheese (Chevre)
Brunost

19

Give 4 mating systems of S and G production?

Flock/mass mating
Harem mating
Stud/Hand mating
AI (mostly sheep, rarely goat)

20

What are the breeding goals of sheep production?

Meat: more muscle, less fat
Prolificacy: high twinning rate
Wool: high quality
Milk: high yield

21

What is the primary, secondary and tertiary use of goats=

1: milk
2: meat
3: wool (some species)

22

What is characteristics of maternal and paternal sheep breeds?

Maternal: Hardy, good reprod and maternal abilities
(Prolific, early puberty, high (60-70%) twinning
Paternal: rapid growth, high carcass quality

23

What is the lambing interval of milk type sheep?

6-9 months

24

What is the milk yield of one lactation period for a sheep?

50-300 kg/lactation

25

Give 5 milk-type sheep breeds

Friesland
British milksheep
Awassi - fat tailed
Chios (feta)
Lacune (roquefort)
Tsigaia (Low potential, hungarian!!!!)

26

Give the composition of sheep milk

F: 5.3
P: 5.5
L: 4.6
ASH: 0.9

27

What is the heritability for milk fat % and protein %?

HIGH

28

What is the heritability for milk yield?

H^2 = 0.1-0.5 (Low to medium)

29

What are some carcass traits of the meat type sheep?

Carcass traits:
Weight, quality, fat amount, back fat thickness (23%) loin ratio, CLPG (muscular hypertrophy)

30

Give
Birth weight
Weaning weight
Daily weight gain

2-4 kg
30 days: 14-17 kg
100-600 kg/day

31

What are the 5 (10) main mutton breeds?

Longwool: leicester, lincoln, romney
Shortwool: suffolk, wiltshire, southdown
German: black face/white face
French: charolais
Dutch: texel sheep (4 shank)

32

Give 3 fur producer sheep breeds

Asian fat-tailed
Asian fat-rumped
Karakul sheep

33

Give the composition of goat milk

F: 3.5
P: 3.1
L: 4.6
ASH: 0.79

34

Give 3 milk-type goat breeds

Saanen
Alpine
Toggenburg

35

Give the average goat milk yield

660-1880 liter

36

Give some advantages of goat milk compared to other milks

Smaller FAs
Less lactose (intolerance)
Ca2+ content, vitamins

37

Give the length of the lactation period of goat?

150-200 days/lactation

38

Merino sheep

Fine wool type
Mutation: sec hair follicles
Diameter: 10-26 micrometers

39

Wool characteristics

Primary follicles: kemp, medullated fibres, true wool
Sec follicles: only true wool fibers

40

What are some parameters to judge the wool quality?

Uniformity
Purity
Colour
Brightness

41

What are some special characteristics of wool?

Specific thermal resistance (impedes heat transfer)
Crimped and elastic
Not hollow
Absorbs moisture

42

Meat producing goat breeds

West-African dwarf
Somali goat
Small Easy-African

43

Dual purpose goat breeds:

Boer
Anglo-Nubian

44

Wool producing goat breeds:

Cashmere (pashmina, double fleece)
Mohair/Angora (diamond fiber)

45

When do sheep hit puberty

6-8 months

46

How long is the gestation period for sheep?

145-150 days

47

Give reprod traits of sheep

Seasonal polyestrus
Fertile: sept to feb
8-10 cycles

48

Breeding season:

Aug to nov

49

How long is the lactation period?

100-180 days

50

How long is the ovarian cycle of sheep?

17-18 days

51

How long is the ovarian cycle of goat?

19-23 days

52

How long does the heat last?
How can you detect it

30 hours
Male acceptance, standing, teasing

53

What are fecundic genes?

FecB/FecX
polyovulation
Dosis effect
Fec B: 1 good 2 better
Fec X: 1 good 2 sterile (x)

54

How can you breed for it?

Hemizygote ram
All female offspring will have one copy

55

Give 6 genetic disorders of sheep/goat?

Hemophilia A
Yellow fat
Calli pyge
Myotonia (goat)
Spider lamb disease (Suffolk, oxford)
Dwarfism

56

What are differences between reprod traits in goat?

Higher seasonality
Cycle: 21 days
Obvious heat
Pseudopregnancy
Lactation anestrus
Less breed variance

57

Breeding technologies in sheep/goat prod

Extensive (once a year) long inactive period
Semi-intensive (3 times in 2 years) shorter inactive period
Intensive (8-10 000 ewes) barely inactive period

58

Give 4 flock management styles

Range band flocks (1000-1500 ewes)
Farm flocks
Specialized flocks
Hobby flocks

59

What forms of protection can the shepherd use?

Fence
Herding dogs, guard dogs
Guarding llama