Flashcards in Sheep and Goat Deck (59)
What is the latin name for sheep and goat
Sheep: Ovis Aries
Goat: Capra aegagrus hircus
When was sheep/goat domesticated?
Which sheep species is the main ancester of the domesticated sheep?
The mouflon (Oriental wild sheep)
Can you cross a sheep with a goat?
ram x doe is possible
bock x ewe never
What is a geep?
A sheep/goat hybrid
Artificial chimera (4 parents)
Where was the sheep/goat first domesticated?
Give some microevolutionary changes
Coat and wool
Coat and wool
Wide variations in colour
Some are polled (sex influenced)
Sheep are neotenic and dependent on humans
Give important differences between sheep and goat
2 Body conformation
3 Flocking instinct
4 Milk production
1 G is less selective than S, but has a higher dig efficiency
2 G has split upper lip and beard
3 S has a stronger flocking instinct than G
4 S has less efficient milk prod, more suitable for cheese
Goat milk is commonly consumed
Ewe: female mature sheep
Gimmer: young female before lambing
Ram/Tup: uncastrated male sheep
Wether: castrated sheep/goat
Stag: male castrated after 6 months
What is (lamb)
Hogget: 9-18 months
Shearling: yearling before first shearling
What is mutton
Meat of 1yr+ sheep (in some countries = goat meat)
How can you identify sheep
Raddle: coloured pigment
When is the mating season and lambing season?
Gestation: 6 months
Lambing: early spring (Norway: easter)
The milk of what species are appropriate for cheese making
Cow, sheep, goat
What is special about the milk of a horse?
High lactose content
What dairy products are made from sheeps milk?
Feta, Roquefort, Manchego, Ricotta
(High casein content)
What dairy products are made from goat milk?
Goat cheese (Chevre)
Give 4 mating systems of S and G production?
AI (mostly sheep, rarely goat)
What are the breeding goals of sheep production?
Meat: more muscle, less fat
Prolificacy: high twinning rate
Wool: high quality
Milk: high yield
What is the primary, secondary and tertiary use of goats=
3: wool (some species)
What is characteristics of maternal and paternal sheep breeds?
Maternal: Hardy, good reprod and maternal abilities
(Prolific, early puberty, high (60-70%) twinning
Paternal: rapid growth, high carcass quality
What is the lambing interval of milk type sheep?
What is the milk yield of one lactation period for a sheep?
Give 5 milk-type sheep breeds
Awassi - fat tailed
Tsigaia (Low potential, hungarian!!!!)
Give the composition of sheep milk
What is the heritability for milk fat % and protein %?
What is the heritability for milk yield?
H^2 = 0.1-0.5 (Low to medium)
What are some carcass traits of the meat type sheep?
Weight, quality, fat amount, back fat thickness (23%) loin ratio, CLPG (muscular hypertrophy)
Daily weight gain
30 days: 14-17 kg
What are the 5 (10) main mutton breeds?
Longwool: leicester, lincoln, romney
Shortwool: suffolk, wiltshire, southdown
German: black face/white face
Dutch: texel sheep (4 shank)
Give 3 fur producer sheep breeds
Give the composition of goat milk
Give 3 milk-type goat breeds
Give the average goat milk yield
Give some advantages of goat milk compared to other milks
Less lactose (intolerance)
Ca2+ content, vitamins
Give the length of the lactation period of goat?
Fine wool type
Mutation: sec hair follicles
Diameter: 10-26 micrometers
Primary follicles: kemp, medullated fibres, true wool
Sec follicles: only true wool fibers
What are some parameters to judge the wool quality?
What are some special characteristics of wool?
Specific thermal resistance (impedes heat transfer)
Crimped and elastic
Meat producing goat breeds
Dual purpose goat breeds:
Wool producing goat breeds:
Cashmere (pashmina, double fleece)
Mohair/Angora (diamond fiber)
When do sheep hit puberty
How long is the gestation period for sheep?
Give reprod traits of sheep
Fertile: sept to feb
Aug to nov
How long is the lactation period?
How long is the ovarian cycle of sheep?
How long is the ovarian cycle of goat?
How long does the heat last?
How can you detect it
Male acceptance, standing, teasing
What are fecundic genes?
Fec B: 1 good 2 better
Fec X: 1 good 2 sterile (x)
How can you breed for it?
All female offspring will have one copy
Give 6 genetic disorders of sheep/goat?
Spider lamb disease (Suffolk, oxford)
What are differences between reprod traits in goat?
Cycle: 21 days
Less breed variance
Breeding technologies in sheep/goat prod
Extensive (once a year) long inactive period
Semi-intensive (3 times in 2 years) shorter inactive period
Intensive (8-10 000 ewes) barely inactive period
Give 4 flock management styles
Range band flocks (1000-1500 ewes)