Swine Flashcards Preview

Animal Breeding Exam > Swine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Swine Deck (47)
1

When and where were the first pigs domesticated?

From wild boar about 15,000 years ago in Near East

2

Give the latin name for the domesticated pig

Order Artiodactyla
Family Suidae
Genus Sus scrofa

3

Give microevolutionary changes between wild boar and pig:
Ears
Coat
Conformation

Ears
WB: upright
Pig: droopy or upright, depending on breed
Coat
WB: thick, short, bristelled, brown, grey or black
Pig: breed specific
Conformation
WB: males tusks, short straight, compact body
Pig: small eyes, curly, kinked or straight tail

4

Why are swine so temperature sensitive

No sweat glands
No brown adipose tissue

5

What is a boar

Adult male

6

What is a sow

Mature female

7

What is a gilt

Immature female

8

What is a piglet/farrow

Young pig

9

What is a shoat

Young pig 50-90 kg

10

What is a barrow

Castrated male pig

11

What are pigs used for

Food (36% of daily world meat protein intake)
Leather
Medicine (transplants, insulin prod (not anymore))
Foraging (truffle hunting)

12

Who does not eat pork and why?

Judaism (only ruminants)
Islam
Some fundamental Christians
Pigs are considered unclean

13

What is PSE, DFD and RSN

They relate to the quality of the meat
PSE = pale, soft, exudative
DFD = dark, firm, dry
RSN = redish/pink, soft, non-exudative

14

What is SEUROP

Used to determine the lean meat/carcass ratio
Superior >60%
Excellent >55%
U very good >50%
R good >45%
O moderate >40%
Poor >35%

15

What parameters are used in the carcass merit?

Dressing %
Backfat thickness
LEA - loin eye area
Marbling
Tenderness

16

What is dressing percentage in carcass merit?

Calculated by dividing the warm carcass weight by the shrunk live weight of the animal and expressing the result as a percentage. Shows how big part of the animal is fat/muscle and bone (intestines, head and skin is removed)

17

When does a pig reach puberty?

5-7 months

18

When is the sow first bred?

8-9 months or at 90-100kg body mass

19

When does first farrowing happen (birth)?

12-14 months

20

How long is a pigs gestation period?

114 days

21

How is pheromonal effects related to the sows estrus cycle?

The presence of the boar at the time of insemination of the sow improves sperm transport and ovulation

22

How can you improve sexual development of pigs?

Restrictive feeding

23

What are some reprod traits of the swine?

Early maturity
Pluriparous
High reprod potential
Continuously polyestrus

24

What is lactation anestrus

The sow shows a postpartum decline in ovarian cycle activity, where the prolactin suppresses the GnRH release, leading to anestrus

25

What is the immobilization reflex and what is it used for?

It is a reflex where the sow shows acceptance of boar and mounting when in heat, can be tested by putting pressure on the back. The sow stands still.

26

How long is the estrus cycle of the sow?

18-23 days

27

How many eggs are released during ovulation and how many are lost?

15-20 eggs released, 10-30% die early

28

What are some reasons to fetal atrophy?

Hereditary chromosomal abnormalities
Overcrowding
Incomplete nutrition (not enough contact with placental wall
Diseases, heat stress

29

How big is their litter size?

6-18 piglets, breed specific

30

How can the litter size be manually increased?

By flush feeding, where the sow has a higher food intake prior to breeding, this releases more eggs

31

What are some external symptoms of a sow being in heat?

Restless, high activity
Swollen, enlarged vulva
Mucus discharge
Frequent urination
Mounting other sows
Immobilization reflex

32

How long does a sow lactate?

25-60 days

33

How can a pregnancy be diagnosed?

Rectal palpation, sonography, blood plasma estrone-sulfate level

34

What hormones maintain the pregnancy?

Ovarian progestrone
porcine placental lactogen (pPL)

35

What hormones can be used to induce ovulation?

eCG + hCG
GnRH

36

What hormones can be used to induce estrus or synchronization?

Gestagens

37

What hormones can be used to induce labour (organisational reasons, feks during daylight)

PGF2a

38

How many teats does the sow have?

5-8x2

39

How long is the period between two farrowings?

150-170 days

40

What is the average birth weight of piglets?

1-2 kg

41

What are some important porcine genetic muscular diseases?

PSS = porcine stress syndrome
Progressive myopathy
Tremor type III

42

What are some important porcine genetic metabolic diseases?

Porphyria
Hemophilia A
Pseudohemophilia
Obesity genes
Gangliosidosis II

43

Give three mating methods

Harem: groups of sows, one boar
Stud/hand mating: individual
AI: very common, fresh diluted sperm

44

Give three types of purebreeding

Inbreeding
Linebreeding
Outcross

45

What are some procedures done to piglets?

Castration
Tail docking
Teeth clipping (to avoid hurting the teat)

46

What are some pros (good things) about alternative free range swine production systems?

The pigs have access to mud (temperature control)
They have larger area to move aound
They can have a relation to the young piglets

47

What are some cons (bad things) about alternative free range swine production systems?

Less economically effective
Denitrification and erotion of soil
Sunburn, heat stress
Pig breeds are often bred for indoor intensive pig farming