Flashcards in Swine Deck (47)
When and where were the first pigs domesticated?
From wild boar about 15,000 years ago in Near East
Give the latin name for the domesticated pig
Genus Sus scrofa
Give microevolutionary changes between wild boar and pig:
Pig: droopy or upright, depending on breed
WB: thick, short, bristelled, brown, grey or black
Pig: breed specific
WB: males tusks, short straight, compact body
Pig: small eyes, curly, kinked or straight tail
Why are swine so temperature sensitive
No sweat glands
No brown adipose tissue
What is a boar
What is a sow
What is a gilt
What is a piglet/farrow
What is a shoat
Young pig 50-90 kg
What is a barrow
Castrated male pig
What are pigs used for
Food (36% of daily world meat protein intake)
Medicine (transplants, insulin prod (not anymore))
Foraging (truffle hunting)
Who does not eat pork and why?
Judaism (only ruminants)
Some fundamental Christians
Pigs are considered unclean
What is PSE, DFD and RSN
They relate to the quality of the meat
PSE = pale, soft, exudative
DFD = dark, firm, dry
RSN = redish/pink, soft, non-exudative
What is SEUROP
Used to determine the lean meat/carcass ratio
U very good >50%
R good >45%
O moderate >40%
What parameters are used in the carcass merit?
LEA - loin eye area
What is dressing percentage in carcass merit?
Calculated by dividing the warm carcass weight by the shrunk live weight of the animal and expressing the result as a percentage. Shows how big part of the animal is fat/muscle and bone (intestines, head and skin is removed)
When does a pig reach puberty?
When is the sow first bred?
8-9 months or at 90-100kg body mass
When does first farrowing happen (birth)?
How long is a pigs gestation period?
How is pheromonal effects related to the sows estrus cycle?
The presence of the boar at the time of insemination of the sow improves sperm transport and ovulation
How can you improve sexual development of pigs?
What are some reprod traits of the swine?
High reprod potential
What is lactation anestrus
The sow shows a postpartum decline in ovarian cycle activity, where the prolactin suppresses the GnRH release, leading to anestrus
What is the immobilization reflex and what is it used for?
It is a reflex where the sow shows acceptance of boar and mounting when in heat, can be tested by putting pressure on the back. The sow stands still.
How long is the estrus cycle of the sow?
How many eggs are released during ovulation and how many are lost?
15-20 eggs released, 10-30% die early
What are some reasons to fetal atrophy?
Hereditary chromosomal abnormalities
Incomplete nutrition (not enough contact with placental wall
Diseases, heat stress
How big is their litter size?
6-18 piglets, breed specific
How can the litter size be manually increased?
By flush feeding, where the sow has a higher food intake prior to breeding, this releases more eggs
What are some external symptoms of a sow being in heat?
Restless, high activity
Swollen, enlarged vulva
Mounting other sows
How long does a sow lactate?
How can a pregnancy be diagnosed?
Rectal palpation, sonography, blood plasma estrone-sulfate level
What hormones maintain the pregnancy?
porcine placental lactogen (pPL)
What hormones can be used to induce ovulation?
eCG + hCG
What hormones can be used to induce estrus or synchronization?
What hormones can be used to induce labour (organisational reasons, feks during daylight)
How many teats does the sow have?
How long is the period between two farrowings?
What is the average birth weight of piglets?
What are some important porcine genetic muscular diseases?
PSS = porcine stress syndrome
Tremor type III
What are some important porcine genetic metabolic diseases?
Give three mating methods
Harem: groups of sows, one boar
Stud/hand mating: individual
AI: very common, fresh diluted sperm
Give three types of purebreeding
What are some procedures done to piglets?
Teeth clipping (to avoid hurting the teat)
What are some pros (good things) about alternative free range swine production systems?
The pigs have access to mud (temperature control)
They have larger area to move aound
They can have a relation to the young piglets