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Animal Breeding Exam > Poultry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Poultry Deck (78)
1

Galliformes

Chicken, Turkey

2

Anatidae

Duck, Goose

3

Ancestor and domestication CHICKEN

Red junglefowl China 5400 B.C.

4

Ancestor and domestication TURKEY

Wild turkey, Mexico 1000 B.C.

5

Ancestor and domestication DUCK

Mallard duck, China 2500 B.C.

6

Ancestor and domestication GOOSE

Greylag/Swan goose, China 2500 B.C.

7

Microev changes of chicken

Inc size, weight
Breast hypertrophy
Large phenotypic variability
Changes to limb musculature
High fertility and prolificacy
Eliminated broodiness
Fast growth

8

Cock/Rooster

Adult male

9

Cockrel

Young male

10

Capon

Castrated male

11

Genetic diseases, embryonic losses

Lethal mutations
Sticky embryo
Malformations:
1. Chondrodystrophy
2. Poly/hypodactyly
3. Wingless or limbless

12

Genetic diseases, hatching

Tremor, naked, beak malformation

13

Genetic diseases, adult

Cardiomyopathy
Stress syndrome (turkey especially)
Aorta rupture (also turkey)

14

Defects as conformational traits

Frizzleness (dosis, hetero good)
Naked neck (Turken)
Crested (Augsburg)
Tailless (Araucanas)
Dwarfism (Z-linked)
Polydactylia (Dorking, silkies)
Tuft
Chondrodystrophia

15

What is interesting about chondrodystrophia

Homozygote: lethal
Heterozygote: increased egg production

16

At what age does a chicken start to lay eggs?

Approx 22 weeks

17

When is a cockerel mature?

4-5 months

18

How often is an egg layed

One a day

19

How many eggs does a good laying hen lay?
What would an average chicken lay 100 years ago?

300 per life,
80-150 per year

20

What is moulting

After 12 months of laying eggs, the chicken will moult
This means they lose their feathers and don't lay any eggs to regenerate their reproductive systems. Farmers can take away food for 2 weeks to force the moulting so the chicken can start laying eggs again

21

Describe the female avian reproductive system

Ovaries
Infundibulum (yolk, fertilization)
Magnum (50% albumen)
Isthmus (shell membrane)
Uterus (40% albumen, shell + cuticle)
Vagina
Cloaca

22

Give some features of the male avian reproductive system

Testicles inside abd cavity, in front of kidneys
Vas deferens goes to cloaca

23

Breeding goal of laying hen?

Strong hen
High egg quality
High number off eggs layed
Minimal broodiness

24

What are some egg production traits

Time of puberty and maturity
Relative and absolute egg production
First year production
Feed conversion and efficiency
Eqq quality
Broodiness

25

Give 5 laying hens

Rhode Island Red
Leghorn (only white egg producer)
New Hampshire
(White Cornish)
(Plymouth Rock)

26

4 breeding methods of laying hens

AI
Stud/Hand
Harem
Mass/Flock

27

Layer hen hybridization:
Describe RRS

Recurrent reciprocal selection
Test crossing: ABCD
Best combination used, rest culled

28

2 phases of egg production

Rearing (up to 17 weeks)
Heat, water and temp is controlled
Laying (from week 18)

29

Describe the lighting program for laying hens

Week 1-18: decreasing from 23 hrs to 9 hrs
Week 19-23: increasing from 10 to 14 hrs
Week 24+: 14 hrs constant

30

What is the reason for using lighting programs

In nature, the chicken would only lay eggs in summer, therefore they must be tricked to thinking its summer

31

What is the broiler chicken breeding goal

Economic bird (effective growth, feed conversion, healthy)

32

What are some parameters to evaluate the broiler efficiency

Body weight
Daily gain
Feed efficiency (FCR)
1.8-2 kg food/kgbwt

33

What is the sex difference in broiler chickens

Approx 18%

34

What is the dressing percentage in broiler chickens

65-70%

35

What breed hybrid is used in broiler chicken

White cornish (paternal) x White plymouth rock (maternal)
= CORNISH ROCK

36

What other breeds can be used as broiler breeds?

Hubbard
Ross
Peterson
Lohmann

37

What two hybridization methods are used?

3 way and 4 way cross

38

At what age are broilers slaughtered

5/6 weeks

39

How are the broilers fattened?

Unlimited food
Corn, grains
Milk?

40

How are the broiler chickens kept

In large units where they are free-range and have unlimited access to food (basically a brooding operation)
Controlled environment
Room + floor central heating
Automatic feeder/waterer

41

What is intensive egg laying poultry production system?

A highly efficient intensive production system where there is the highest amount of eggs produced, and forced moulting (BATTERY CAGE)
They are not free to move, and the eggs fall down a conveyor belt
CHEAP

42

What is alternative egg laying poultry production system?

Free range
Outside or inside
Room to wander, scratch, peck, forage and show normal chicken behavior
For broilers: slower growth

43

Is keeping laying hens in battery cages legal?

Not since 2012 in the EU

44

What is organic production system?

Restrictions on :
medication given in water or food (for treatment and prevention)
food additives
synthetic amino acids

45

What is a furnished cage

A cage where the chicken has room to move around and displays normal chicken behaviour

46

What are some issues with poultry production systems?

Antibiotics
Arsenic
Hormones (currently not legal)
E.coli, salmonella
Avian influenza
Ammonia

47

Give the domestication of turkey

1000 B.C., Mexico

48

What is the breeding goal of turkey

Meat production
Egg for hatching
Broad chest

49

When does a turkey hit puberty?

16 weeks

50

When do turkeys start laying eggs?

34 weeks

51

How many eggs do turkeys lay?

About 2 a week

52

What are 2 mating methods for turkeys?

AI or natural

53

What turkey cannot breed naturally and requires AI?

The bronze broad breasted turkey

54

Give three turkey breeds

Bronze
White beltsville (maternal)
Black turkey

55

Give the weights for different turkey types
Giant
Maxi
Midi
Mini

Giant 17-20 kg
Maxi 6 kg
Midi 5 kg
Mini 4 kg

56

When and where was the goose domesticated?'

From greyleg or swan goose 3000 B.C.

57

What are geese used for?

Meat, egg, liver, feather, alarming, weed control

58

Give reprod traits of geese

Maturity: 40 weeks
Egg prod: 30-50 eggs

59

Give growth traits of geese

Meat performance and production (early gain)
FCR: 2.8 kg food/kgbw

60

Give weight of liver for toulouse and grey goose

Toulouse: 1100g
Grey goose: 800-900 g

61

How long is the goose lifespan in the wild?

Up to 50 years

62

Give meat type goose breeds

Embden
Grey pomeranian
Pilgrim (autosex)

63

Give layer type goose breeds

Italian
Rhenish

64

Give liver type goose breeds

Toulouse
Grey goose

65

How can they make foie gras

Stuffing: force feeding goose with corn

66

Domestication of ducks

Far East, 2500 B.C. (+ Europe and Mesopotamia)

67

How many eggs can the duck produce?

300 eggs

68

What are the two main duck breeds?

1. Landrace (heavy)
2. Penguin (upright)

69

Give layer duck breeds

Runner Duck
Khaki Campbell

70

Give meat duck breads

Peking
Aylesbury
Rouen

71

What is the muscovy duck?

Domesticated in Brazil
Not from mallard
Has a red crest in face

72

Domestication of pigeon

8000 B.C. in Mesopotamia from Rock dove

73

What is a squeaker and a squab?

Squeaker: baby pigeon
Squab: young pigeon

74

What are pigeons for?

Meat (squabs)
Ornamental (Exhibitions)
Racing, homing (war)
Scientific experiments

75

What are breeding methods based on?

Phenotype

76

Give flying sport pigeon breeds

Homing, tipplers, rollers

77

Give fancy pigeon breeds

Jacobins, Fantain, Pygmy

78

Give utility pigeon breeds

Texan (autosex)
King