Flashcards in Poultry Deck (78)
Ancestor and domestication CHICKEN
Red junglefowl China 5400 B.C.
Ancestor and domestication TURKEY
Wild turkey, Mexico 1000 B.C.
Ancestor and domestication DUCK
Mallard duck, China 2500 B.C.
Ancestor and domestication GOOSE
Greylag/Swan goose, China 2500 B.C.
Microev changes of chicken
Inc size, weight
Large phenotypic variability
Changes to limb musculature
High fertility and prolificacy
Genetic diseases, embryonic losses
3. Wingless or limbless
Genetic diseases, hatching
Tremor, naked, beak malformation
Genetic diseases, adult
Stress syndrome (turkey especially)
Aorta rupture (also turkey)
Defects as conformational traits
Frizzleness (dosis, hetero good)
Naked neck (Turken)
Polydactylia (Dorking, silkies)
What is interesting about chondrodystrophia
Heterozygote: increased egg production
At what age does a chicken start to lay eggs?
Approx 22 weeks
When is a cockerel mature?
How often is an egg layed
One a day
How many eggs does a good laying hen lay?
What would an average chicken lay 100 years ago?
300 per life,
80-150 per year
What is moulting
After 12 months of laying eggs, the chicken will moult
This means they lose their feathers and don't lay any eggs to regenerate their reproductive systems. Farmers can take away food for 2 weeks to force the moulting so the chicken can start laying eggs again
Describe the female avian reproductive system
Infundibulum (yolk, fertilization)
Magnum (50% albumen)
Isthmus (shell membrane)
Uterus (40% albumen, shell + cuticle)
Give some features of the male avian reproductive system
Testicles inside abd cavity, in front of kidneys
Vas deferens goes to cloaca
Breeding goal of laying hen?
High egg quality
High number off eggs layed
What are some egg production traits
Time of puberty and maturity
Relative and absolute egg production
First year production
Feed conversion and efficiency
Give 5 laying hens
Rhode Island Red
Leghorn (only white egg producer)
4 breeding methods of laying hens
Layer hen hybridization:
Recurrent reciprocal selection
Test crossing: ABCD
Best combination used, rest culled
2 phases of egg production
Rearing (up to 17 weeks)
Heat, water and temp is controlled
Laying (from week 18)
Describe the lighting program for laying hens
Week 1-18: decreasing from 23 hrs to 9 hrs
Week 19-23: increasing from 10 to 14 hrs
Week 24+: 14 hrs constant
What is the reason for using lighting programs
In nature, the chicken would only lay eggs in summer, therefore they must be tricked to thinking its summer
What is the broiler chicken breeding goal
Economic bird (effective growth, feed conversion, healthy)
What are some parameters to evaluate the broiler efficiency
Feed efficiency (FCR)
1.8-2 kg food/kgbwt
What is the sex difference in broiler chickens
What is the dressing percentage in broiler chickens
What breed hybrid is used in broiler chicken
White cornish (paternal) x White plymouth rock (maternal)
= CORNISH ROCK
What other breeds can be used as broiler breeds?
What two hybridization methods are used?
3 way and 4 way cross
At what age are broilers slaughtered
How are the broilers fattened?
How are the broiler chickens kept
In large units where they are free-range and have unlimited access to food (basically a brooding operation)
Room + floor central heating
What is intensive egg laying poultry production system?
A highly efficient intensive production system where there is the highest amount of eggs produced, and forced moulting (BATTERY CAGE)
They are not free to move, and the eggs fall down a conveyor belt
What is alternative egg laying poultry production system?
Outside or inside
Room to wander, scratch, peck, forage and show normal chicken behavior
For broilers: slower growth
Is keeping laying hens in battery cages legal?
Not since 2012 in the EU
What is organic production system?
Restrictions on :
medication given in water or food (for treatment and prevention)
synthetic amino acids
What is a furnished cage
A cage where the chicken has room to move around and displays normal chicken behaviour
What are some issues with poultry production systems?
Hormones (currently not legal)
Give the domestication of turkey
1000 B.C., Mexico
What is the breeding goal of turkey
Egg for hatching
When does a turkey hit puberty?
When do turkeys start laying eggs?
How many eggs do turkeys lay?
About 2 a week
What are 2 mating methods for turkeys?
AI or natural
What turkey cannot breed naturally and requires AI?
The bronze broad breasted turkey
Give three turkey breeds
White beltsville (maternal)
Give the weights for different turkey types
Giant 17-20 kg
Maxi 6 kg
Midi 5 kg
Mini 4 kg
When and where was the goose domesticated?'
From greyleg or swan goose 3000 B.C.
What are geese used for?
Meat, egg, liver, feather, alarming, weed control
Give reprod traits of geese
Maturity: 40 weeks
Egg prod: 30-50 eggs
Give growth traits of geese
Meat performance and production (early gain)
FCR: 2.8 kg food/kgbw
Give weight of liver for toulouse and grey goose
Grey goose: 800-900 g
How long is the goose lifespan in the wild?
Up to 50 years
Give meat type goose breeds
Give layer type goose breeds
Give liver type goose breeds
How can they make foie gras
Stuffing: force feeding goose with corn
Domestication of ducks
Far East, 2500 B.C. (+ Europe and Mesopotamia)
How many eggs can the duck produce?
What are the two main duck breeds?
1. Landrace (heavy)
2. Penguin (upright)
Give layer duck breeds
Give meat duck breads
What is the muscovy duck?
Domesticated in Brazil
Not from mallard
Has a red crest in face
Domestication of pigeon
8000 B.C. in Mesopotamia from Rock dove
What is a squeaker and a squab?
Squeaker: baby pigeon
Squab: young pigeon
What are pigeons for?
Racing, homing (war)
What are breeding methods based on?
Give flying sport pigeon breeds
Homing, tipplers, rollers
Give fancy pigeon breeds
Jacobins, Fantain, Pygmy