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Flashcards in Hubbard Deck (63):
1

Distinction between TTP and DIC

PT/PTT in TTP are normal early in the disease, but later tests suggest DIC

2

Treatment for TTP - 100% life saving

plasmapheresis

3

"pseudohemophilia" with mucocutaneous bleeding

Factor8-vWD

4

Platelet aggregation test (vWF)

ristocetin

5

Osler Weber Rendeu Syndrome is defined as __ and also called ___

Also called: Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
-Caused by thinning of the vessel walls causing telangiectatic formations and AV malformations

6

Fever + neuro + thromboCP + renal + microangiopathic hemolytic anemia = ?

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

7

Define microagiopathic anemia (MAHA) and example diseases (extravascular HA)

RBCs damaged when they pass through obstructed or narrowed vessels.
-DIC, TTP/HUS, SLE, malignant HTN
-PBS = **schistocytes

8

Define macroagiopathic anemia and example diseases (extravascular HA).

Prosthetic heart valves and Aortic Stenosis may cause HA secondary to MECHANICAL destruction of RBCs.
-PBS=schistocytes

9

Examples of infections that increase RBC destruction (extravascular HA).

Malaria, babesia

10

Pathogenesis of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura

- Hereditary -- ADAMTS13 gene mutation
- Acquired – autoantibodies at ADAMTS13
- “Von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease” (degrades vWF) = ADAMTS13.
-ADAMTS13 inhibition = decreased vWF degredation = increased platelet aggregation and thrombosis

11

Treat Hemophilia A with
Treat Hemophilia B with

Factor 8
Factor 9

12

CD#;ch# in hereditary hemorrhagic Telangiectasia.
Notable location of the hemorrhages.

CD105, ch9 --> codes for **ENDOGLIN**
-Hemorrhages on the vermilion border of lip and tongue

13

What is the most common cause of hypercoagulabilty?

Initiation of warfarin therapy because PRotein C and S are depleted prior to other factors, resulting in increased coagulablity.

14

Antiphospholipid syndrome is an anti/pro coagulant?
What do you use to diagnose.
***What condition is present in 50% of cases, but is NOT necessary to diagnose?
Tx with what?

PROcoagulant
-Use DRVVT (diluted Russell Viper Venom Test) or PTT test
****NOT NECESSARY to have connective tissue disease to have this.
Tx: hydroxychloroquine

15

Presence of what two factors increase risk of DVT or PT by 35-fold?

OCP + heterozygous Factor5 Leiden = synergistic relationship

16

Pts with vWD show up first with what symptom?

mucocutaneous bleeding

17

Treatment of vWD - does what? 1) cryoprecipitate 2) DDAVP

1. Cryoprecipitate - replaces vWF
2. DDAVP - causes release of vWF from endothelium

18

Clinical features of ____?
-Easy bleeding & bruisability
-Hematomas from bleeding into soft tissues and muscles
-Hemarthroses – frequent, many patients have 1 or 2 target joints which have recurrent bleeds
-Patients are significantly inc risk for bleeding during and after surgery

Hemophilia A

19

Treatment of Hemophilia A

- Factor replacement for bleeds, surgical prophylaxis
- Recombinant factor replacements – hepatitis and AIDS less of a problem
- Factor VIII inhibitors – antibodies to factor VIII that may complicate care

20

What deficiency can occur in patients taking warfarin, on chornic antibiotics, rat poison ingestion, or severe liver disease?

Vit K deficeincy

21

Characteristics of ____
o Bleeding/hemorrhage
o Prolonged PT
o Def of factors II, VII, IX, X, Protein C & S
o Anticoagulants = C & S

Vit K deficiency

22

Treatment for Vit K deficiency. Use which when?

- Vit K replacement (intact liver)
- FFP (used when liver dz or acute hemorrhage)

23

What is the only endothelial syndrome associated with hemostatic complications?

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangectasia

24

Clinical presentation for...
o Minimal to early death from recurrent pulmonary emboli
o Chronic leg ulcers, deep vein thrombosis, recurrent LE thrombophlebitis
o DVT inc in pregnancy

Antithrombin 3 deficiency.

tendency to clot more/hypercoagulable

25

Antithrombin 3 deficiency treatment

-Prophylactic treatment with anticoagulants
-Patients with DVT should receive heparin but in higher doses
-AT-III replacement therapy, if don’t respond to heparin

26

Action of protein C

inactivates Factors 5 and 8

27

Use what in Protein C deficiency to decrease risk of thromboembolic disease?

warfarin

28

What is antithrombin 3? What amplifies it?

serine protease that inhibits activation of thrombin.
-Heparin amplifies activity
-In absence of antithrombin3, hypercoagulablity

29

Most common cause of hypercoagulable state from deficiency in Protein C or S

initiation of warfarin therapy

30

Factor 5 Leiden is what classification of disease?

thrombotic

31

Treatment of Factor 5 Leiden (Defect)
-No prior episodes v. prior episodes

o No prior episodes: monitor; DVT prophylaxis and risk reduction
o Prior episodes: add lifelong anticoagulation

32

Three test used to diagnose antiphospholipid Syndrome

1. Prolonged phospholipid dependent coagulation test (PTT)
2. Lack of correction in mixing studies using normal plasma
3. Neutralization of inhibitor with excess phospholipid

33

What is the most common preventable cause of death?

DVT

34

What is Virchow's Triad?

vessel wall damage, blood coaguability, altered blood flow

35

What is this?
- Body makes antibodies to virus
- Antigens on virus look like glycoproteins on platelets
- Now platelets are circulation with antibodies on it platelets getting destroyed
- Spleen should be big

Acute Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

36

Management of Acute ITP

o PREDNISONE 1mg/kg/day
o Begin tapering does after a week
o If this doesn’t work immune globulin
o If person is a type one diabetic – sugar will be bouncing off the wall if on prednisone, so - 1)Put him on IV IG Or 2) give SPLENECTOMY (can be partial)

37

What is this?
Dolle bodies, increased toxic granulations, no schistocytes, PT/PTT abnormal

DIC

38

Management of DIC

o Treat underlying cause
o Until that’s fixed – fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate
o Platelet transfusion
o Red cell count drops then transfuse red cells

39

What is this?
*****White/painful fingers + extremely high platelets (1.2M) =

Erythromyalgia

also, possibly blurred vision

40

Treatment of erythromyalgia

aspirin

41

What is this?
- causes hypercalcemia
- suppresses levels of uninvolved immunoglboins
- they have weird infection problems b/c no antibodies around, just ONE antibody immunoglobin that is involved in one major way
- myeloma cells produce osteoclast activating factors that causes elevated calcemia
- causes suppression of osteoblastic activity lytic bone lesions lots of free calcium

Multiple myeloma

42

****What test MUST you do when you suspect Multiple myeloma?

Skeletal survey, NOT A BONE SCAN

Also, se M spike

43

***treatment of multiple myeloma

thalidomide or linolidamide (angiogenesis inhibitor)
+
dexamethosone (steroid)

44

Using bisphosmate in MM patients can cause what?

Myeloma kidney

45

Ducher + congo red =

Amyloidosis (seen in pts with plasma cell dyscrasia)

Dutcher bodies

46

heavy chain disease + truncated alpha chains = ?
(Presents with mesenteric adenopathy, diarrhea/malabsorption probelms, etc.)

Treat this with...?

alpha heavy chain disease

treated with ANTIMICROBIALS, NOT chemo

47

Indicative of __?
• Chromosome 5,7
• Trisomy 8
• Inversion 1

MDS

48

Treat 5q-Syndrome with what?

lenalidomide

49

"Moth eaten appearance"

MM

50

80yoM presents with sausage linking of the veins in eye. Electrophoresis shows gamma peak.

Waldenstrom (hyperviscosity), LPL

51

Parvo and thymomas can cause what?

pure red cell aplasia

52

*******treatment for aplastic anemia

********cyclosporin and anti-thymocyte globulin

53

Maltese cross = ? and can cause ___

babesiosis = HA

54

A pt has high risk MDS. The only curative modality for this is?

Pt has severe aplastic anemia - curative modality?

allogenic stem cell transplantation

55

MDS presents with?
MPD presents with?

MDS - cytopenia, infection
MPS - anemia, SM, B symptoms

56

hydroxyuria does what?

Increases HbF - use in sickle cell

57

When are increases in HbF beneficial in Sickle cell anemia?

- painful episodes, Acute Chest Syndrome, Osteonecrosis, Leg ulcers

58

Heavy chain disease - look for what in plasma cells?

Vacuolization

59

Type of Heavy chain disease that can be aggressive or asymptomatic, almost always associated with anemia, HSM, LAD

Gamma

60

Type of Heavy chain disease that can be MC type, MCly involving GI tract

Alpha

61

Type of Heavy chain disease that can be Bence Jones proteinuria, hypogammalobulinemia

Mu

62

Tx for sideroblastic anemia

paradoxine or alcohol cessation

63

sickle cell tx - children need abx prolylaxis?

no. only for neonates