Multiple myeloma - Myelodysplastic syndromes Flashcards Preview

Hematology And Oncology > Multiple myeloma - Myelodysplastic syndromes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Multiple myeloma - Myelodysplastic syndromes Deck (25):
1

Myelodysplastic syndromes - mechanism

stem cell disorders involving ineffective hematopoiesis
--> defects in cell maturation of all nonlymphoid lineages

2

Myelodysplastic syndromes is caused by

1. de novo mutations
2. environmental exposure (radiation, benzene, chemotherapy)

3

Myelodysplastic syndromes - environmental exposure

1. radiation
2. benzene
3. chemotherapy

4

Myelodysplastic syndromes - complications

may progress to AML

5

Pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly

neutrophils with bilobed nuclei typically seen after chemotherapy

6

Pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly - typically seen

after chemotherapy

7

MGUS

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

8

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance - definition

monoclonal expansion of plasma cells

9

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance - symptoms

asymptomatic

10

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance - complications

may lead to multiple myeloma (1-2% per year)

11

Multiple myeloma - age

more than 40-50

12

Multiple myeloma is the most common primary tumor ....

arising with bone in people >40-50

13

Multiple myeloma - cancer of

plasma cells (fried egg appearance)

14

Multiple myeloma - arises in the

marrow

15

Multiple myeloma - produces (proportions)

large ammount of:
- IgG (55%)
-IgA (25%)
- Ig light chains

16

Multiple myeloma - histology

Numerous plasma cells with clock face chromatin and intracytoplasmic inclusions containing immunglobulin

17

Multiple myeloma - increased susceptibility to

infection

18

Multiple myeloma - symptoms/findings

1. hypercalcemia 2. anemia 3. renal involvement 4. bone lytic lesion/back pain 5. infections 6. Rouleaux formation
7. Bence Jones protein 8. Primary amyloidosis (AL) 9 . M spike on electrophoresis

19

Multiple myeloma - x-ray

Punched out lytic bone lesions on x-ray

20

Multiple myeloma - Rouleaux formation

RBCs stacked like poker chips in blood smear

21

Multiple myeloma - Bence Jones protein

Ig light chains in urine

22

Waldestrom macroblobulinemia - symptoms.mechanism

M spike = IgM --> hyperviscosity syndrome --> 1. blurred vision 2. Raynaud phenomenon

23

multiple myeloma may cause ... in kidney

Fanconi syndrome (generalized reabsorptive defect in PCT)

24

causes of Fanconi syndrome

1. hereditary defects (Wislon, tyrosinemia, glycogen storage disease, cystinosis)
2. Ischemia
3. MM
4. nephrotoxins/drugs (ifosfmaide, cisplatin, tenofovir, expired tetracyclines)
5. LEAD POISONING

25

Multiple Myeloma - cytokines

high serum of IL-6