Nervous System HISTOLOGY & Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nervous System HISTOLOGY & Anatomy Deck (34):
1

Describe the layers of the Brain starting with Bone (9)

2

A: Name the Cells of Neuroectodermal origin (2)

B: Name the Cells of Mesenchymal origin (3)

A: Neuroectodermal: Neurons and [Glial Cells: AOE (Astrocytes / Oligodendrocytes / Ependymocytes]

 

B: Mesenchymal

-[Microglial Macrophages]

-Choroid Plexus

-Meninges 

3

A: What stain is this? What does it stain? 

B: Which organ component is this? 

A: Nissel Stain which stains Nissel bodies located in neuronal rough ER

B: Cerebral Cortex

"White People In your Brain" = White mater is on the INSIDE in the BRAIN

4

Describe the following stains

A: H & E

B: Cresyl Violet

C: [Bielschowsky Silver Stain]

A: Does NOT stain neuronal processes but will stain [cytoplasm pink] and [nuclei blue]

B: Stains [Nissel Bodies] of the neuronal body Rough ER

C: Stains Axons and Dendrites (image shown below)

5

What structure is stained by these Immunohistochemical stains

A: Vimentin

B: Neurofilament

C: [GFAPGlial Fibrillary Acidic Protein] (2)

D: [Synptophysin vs. Chromogranin]

E: NeuN

F: [NSE - Neuron specific enolase]

G: S100

 

A: [Intermediate filaments of Astrocytes]

B: [Intermediate filaments of DAN (Dendrites/Axons/neurons)] 

C: Astrocytes & Ependymal cells

D: Neuronal Cytoplasm

E: Neuronal Nuclei

F: Neurons

G: Astrocytes

6

A: What type of cell? 

B:Histology Description (3)

C: Function

A: [Principal Motor Neuron]

B: 

1) Long Axon

2) Prominent Nissel substance within cytoplasm

3) [Large cell body with single large centrally placed nucleolus]

 

C: Transmit info over long distances of the cerebral cortex

7

A: This cell is AKA Granular Cell Neuron. What is it? 

B: Histologic description (3)

A: [Local Circuit Interneuron] 

B: 

1) small compact cell body

2) LACKS NISSEL SUBSTANCE

3) [short dendrites & small axons]

8

A: What Neuronal Cellular Response is delineated?

B: Describe the pathophysiology

A: Central Chromatolysis 

B: When axon destruction occurs, [Nissel body containing Rough ER] disaggregates and disperses --> [smooth cytoplasm] + [peripherally displaced nuclei] + [ballooned neuronal body]. It disperses as an attempt to regenerate new proteins for new axon. 

9

A: What Neuronal Cellular Response is delineated?

B: Describe the pathophysiology

C: What Dz is this most commonly associated with

A: Neuronophagia 

B: [Neuronal Cell Body] disappears 2° to anoxia. Afterwards, it becomes surrounded by [purple elongated microglia macrophages] 

C: Viral CNS Infection

10

A: What Neuronal Cellular Response is delineated?

B: Describe the pathophysiology

C: What 3 areas of the brain are most Vulnerable to this condition? 

A: [Acute Neuronal Injury] 

B: [Acute Neuronal Injury] --> [More Eosinophilic Pink Cytoplasm] and [Pyknotic Nucleus]

C: 

1) [Pyramidal neurons: Hippocampus CA1 field]

2) [Pyramidal neurons: Neocortex Areas 3 & 5]

3) Purkinje Cells

11

A: What Neuronal Cellular Response is delineated?

B: Describe the pathophysiology

C: What are the main causes of this? (4)

A: [BAN - Ballooned Achromatic Neuron

B: Degenerative Dz--> Enlargement of neuron bodies and cytoplasmic homogenization but with [centrally placed nucleus]

C: "BAN the PACT"

1. [Corticobasal degeneration]

2. [Pick's Dz]

3. [ANT Horn cell aging: physiological]

4. Prion Dz

12

A: What is shown in the image? 

B: Where does it come from? 

A: Negri Body neuronal inclusion

B: Rabies Infection

13

A: What is shown in the image? 

B: Where does it come from? 

A: Lewy Body neuronal inclusion

B: Parkinson's Dz (found at synpases of Substantia Nigra and contains neuromelanin)

14

A: What is shown in the image? 

B: Where does it come from? (2)

A: Hirano Body neuronal inclusion

B: Alzheimer's vs. normal aging

(intracellular aggregates of alpha actin)

15

A: In MACROglia, only the ___ will stain

B: What are the 2 types of MACROglia

C: Describe each

A: Nucleus

B:

Oligodendrocytes (top arrow) = [DARKLY staining nuclei with Fried Egg Appearance from fixation]

vs. 

Astrocytes (bottom arrow) = Oval vesicular nuclei that looks star shaped on [Golgi and GFAP stains]

16

A: What stain is this? 

B: What structure is this? 

C: Function of this structure

A: Golgi Stain (GFAP stain shown in image below)

B: Astrocytes ( [Fibrillary white] vs. [Protoplasmic gray])

C: Provides structural support for neurons and aids in neuronal repair. Their feet attach to small blood vessels. 

17

A: Describe the two MAIN types of Astrocytes

B: What are the 2 SubTypes of Astrocytes

A: 

[Fibrillary white] = majority of Astrocytes and contains numerous processes

[Protoplasmic gray] = fewer branches

 

B: Subtypes

-Bergman glia in cerebellum

-Pilocytic in [periventricular/cerebellum/spinal cord/white matter]

18

A: What Neuronal Cellular Response is delineated?

B: Describe the pathophysiology

C: Describe the 2 special types of this process

A: Astrocyte Gliosis

B: Rxn to ischemia 

 

C: 2 types: 

1) Bergman's Gliosis: Cerebellum infarcts

2) Chaslin Gliosis: SubPial infarcts 

 

Astrocytes are [Oval vesicular nuclei that looks star shaped on [Golgi and GFAP stains]]

19

A: What is shown below

B: What are these AKA (2)

A: Oligodendrocytes= [DARKLY staining nuclei with Fried Egg Appearance from fixation]

B: "Few Branch Glia" and "Satellite Cells"

 

H&E of Trigeminal N. showing difference between myelination pattern of CNS (top) and PNS (bottom

20

A: What Neuronal Cellular Response is delineated?

B: Describe the pathophysiology

B2: What part of the brain does this occur?

A: Satellitosis

B: Oligodendrocytes (dark purple cells) can also be called Satellite cells since they're adjacent to neuronal cell bodies.

B2: Occurs with hyperproliferation within gray matter

 

21

In what 2 situations do Oligodendrocytes proliferate?

1. Active Multiple Sclerosis Plaque - proliferation on the edge of the plaque

2. [Myelination Gliosis] = normal process during development

22

Name the 2 disorders that are associated with Oligodendrocyte Inclusions

1. JC Virus in [PML - Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalophaty]

 

2. Various Neurodegnerative diseases

23

A: What type of cell? 

B:Histology Description

C: Function (3)

D: What stain is used for these cells

A: microglia (not really glia!)

B: cigar shaped nuclei with few branches

C: 

*Transforms into [Antigen presenting phagocytic cells] during [Viral Encephalitis] (seen within microglia nodules-image shown below)

*Seen clustered around Dying Neurons = Neuronalphgia

*Housekeeping functions

D: CD68 Stain: since microglia are derived from CD68 monocytes

24

A: What type of cell? 

B:Histology Description (2)

C: Function

A: Ependyma

B: 

-Single layer of cuboidal vs. columnar cells + cilia at ventricular surface

-No Basement Membrane

C: Specialized Glia that line ventricles and regulate molecular transport

25

A: What type of cell? 

B:Histology Description

C: Function

A: Choroid Plexus

B: Single layer of uniform cells with Cobblestone Appearance

C: Specialized Organ made of Ependyma cells that protrudes into the ventricles

26

A: What structure is this showing

B: Identify the labels

A: Meninges

B: 

WM = White matter

Ar = Arachnoid Space

A = Artery

DM = Dura Matter (Dense Fibrous Connective tissue)

Leptomeninges = Arachnoid and Pia Mater that enclose brain and spinal cord

27

1) The Fasciculus Gracilis exist at _______of spinal cord and DOES contain ______ ____ from the ___ 
vs. 
Fasciculus Cuneatus exist in {__-__} =  ____ and ______ and contains _____ ____ from the ___

1B) Which Pathway are these Fasciculus columns associated with? 

2) What happens to 2nd order neurons of this Pathway?
 2B) Where are these 2nd order neurons located? 

3) What happens to 3rd Order neurons of this Pathway? 

4) How does [Proprioreception/Vibration/2-point discrimination] get to 2nd order neurons? [5]

**Position/Vibration/2-point discrimination travels from periphery in the ______ ______-----> passes ______--->passes ______ ______ Gray mater-->ultimately travels upwards using ______ ______ or ______ ______
--->travel up into [______ MEDULLA] to synapse 1st time in ______ ______ or ______ ______

1) The Fasciculus Gracilis exist at ALL LEVELS of spinal cord and DOES contain [ascending sensory fibers] from the LE 
vs. 
Fasciculus Cuneatus only exist in {C1-T6} =  Thoracic segments (T1-T6) and Cervical segments (C1-C8) and contains [ascending sensory fibers] from UE

**DORSAL COLUMN PATHWAY** 

2) 2nd order neurons in [nucleus gracilis] AND [nucleus cuneatus] decussate as [internal arcuate fibers] in LOWER MEDULLA--->cross midline to form [Medial Lemniscus]--->this travels to VPL nucleus of thalamus! 

3) 3rd order neurons in [VPL nucleus of thalamus] travel in internal capsule and terminate in [Area 312 POSTcentral gyrus]

4) Position/Vibration/2-point discrimination travels from periphery in [Dorsal Root]---> passes DRG--->passes Dorsal Horn Gray mater-->bends in {Fasciculus cuneatus or gracilis}--->travel up into [LOWER MEDULLA] to synapse 1st time in {nucleus cuneatus or gracilis}

28

Identify

A: Entire image is ____

B: Far Left

C: Far Right

A: [Neocortex (6 layers)]

B: Far Left = Meninges

C: Far Right = White Matter

29

A: Identify

B: Describe the histology

A: NeoCortex

B: [Triangular neurons] and [scattered small dark glial cells] in a pink neuropil background

30

A: Identify organ

B: What's the Dark Blue component

C: What's the Underlying Pink component

A: CEREBELLUM

B: Blue = [FoliaGranule Cell layer]

C: Underlying Pink= [FoliaMolecular Cell layer​]

(both with scattered Purkinje cells between them and White matter underlying the Folia)

31

A: Identify entire image

B: Far Right

C: White Space

D: Far Left

A: Choroid Plexus

B: Far Right = Choroid plexus with epithelium around a stroma that has prominent blood vessels

C: White Space = Ventricle

D: Far Left = Cortex that is lined with ependymal cells

32

A: Identify entire image

B: What is the Composition of this organ

A: Hippocampus

B: Consist of a PaleoCortex which has 3 layers and [Pyramidal Neurons]

33

A: Identify entire image

B: What is the Composition of this organ

A: [Hippocampus with Pyramidal neurons]

B: Consist of a PaleoCortex which has 3 layers and [Pyramidal Neurons]

34

A: Identify entire image

B: What is the Composition of this organ (2)

A: [Ependymal lining of Cerebral Ventricles]

B: Consist of a [Single layer of Cuboidal vs. Columnar cells] and contain cilia!