Newborn Exam Flashcards Preview

Pediatrics > Newborn Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Newborn Exam Deck (71)
Loading flashcards...
1

Key Questions for Prenatal Interview

Social circumstances
Health of mother & father
Genetic history
Alcohol & smoking history
Pregnancy history

2

What to Discuss at Prenatal Interview

Breast feeding vs. bottle feeding
Car seat usage
SIDS
Exposure to cigarette smoke
Crib safety
Work plans/child care plans
Social support

3

When do Pediatric or Neonatal Providers Attend a Birth?

C-sections
Multiple births
Premature births
Fetal distress noted
High risk pregnancy

4

Immediately After Delivery One Must:

Clear airway secretions
Dry baby
Cover baby
APGAR scores

5

What is APGAR for?

Time honored method in evaluating the newborn infant at time of delivery

6

What Does APGAR Stand for?

Activity
Pulse
Grimace
Appearance
Respirations

7

Newborn Prophylaxis

Erythromycin drops
Administration of vitamin K1
Hep. B vaccination
Umbilical cord care
Monitor for hyperbilirubinemia & hypoglycemia

8

Routine Screening for Infants

Hearing loss
PKU
Congenital hypothyroidism
Galactosemia
Hemoglobinopathies
Congenitally acquired infections

9

Common Sense in Newborn Exam

Startles/stops with noise; can hear
Blinks with bright lights; can see
Urinates; urethra patent
Defecates; anus patent
Gross neuro exam; crying, moving, fussing, etc.
Jitteriness; low sugar, seizure, infection
Nasal flaring; respiratory distress

10

Measurement of an Infant

Weight- grams or pounds
Length- cm or in
Head circumference- cm or in
Chest circumference- cm or in

11

Etiologies of Small Gestational Age Infants

Congenital infections
Chromosomal defects
Cell toxins
Maternal malnutrition
Multiple gestations
Pre-eclampsia: asymmetric
Placental abnormalities
Maternal use of tobacco

12

Etiologies of Large Gestational Age Infants

Maternal diabetes
Hydrops fetalis
Genetic predisposition
Male fetus
Post-date gestation
Multiparity

13

Newborn Skin Exam

Inspect the skin for color, lesions, and rashes

14

Define Cutis Marmorata

Mottled appearance that will disappear over time

15

Define Vernix Caseosa

White to yell waxy covering in newborns, most abundant in the creases and flexor surfaces

16

Define Lanugo

Downy hair covering the body, more common with prematurity

17

Define Erythema Toxicum

Benign rash characterized by fleeting erythematous papillose and pustules filled with eosinophils

18

Define Nevus Flammeus/Vascular Nevi/Salmon patches

Usually benign flat red markings on upper eyelids, in the area above the nose sometimes extending to the forehead, and/or on the back of the neck

19

Define Port-Wine Stain

Permanent discolorations of the skin

20

Define Sebaceous Gland Hyperplasia

Small yellow papillose that are often seen over the nose and cheek; disappear spontaneously

21

Define Milia

Similar to sebaceous gland hyperplasia but white papillose and smaller

22

Define Acne Neonatorum

Acne appearance likely from maternal hormonal influence,

23

Define Mongolian Spots

Bluish black macular lesions usually over lumbrosacral area
Native American, Black, or Asian infants

24

Define Strawberry or Capillary Hemangiomas

Perhaps worrisome
Grow for 3-7 months, stabilize, then involute at about 1 year

25

Define Cavernous Hemangioma

Collection of larger blood vessels, usually much larger than strawberry hemangioma and bluish in color

26

Define Jaundice

Yellow staining of the body tissues and fluids due to hyperbilirubinemia

27

Types of Skin Issues

Cutis Marmorata
Vernix caseosa
Lanugo
Erythema toxic
Nevus flammeus/vascular nevi/salmon patches
Port-win stain
Sebaceous gland hyperplasia
Milia
Acne neonatorum
Mongolian spots
Strawberry or capillary hemangiomas
Jaundice

28

Newborn Head Exam

Head circumference
Palpate fontanelles
Check for molding & forceps marks
Hydrocephalus
Caput succedaneum
Cephalohematoma
Craniosynostosis
Craniotabes

29

When does the anterior fontanelle close?

18-24 months

30

When does the posterior fontanelle close?

6 weeks