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Flashcards in Pediatric Oncology Deck (86)
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1

Common Childhood Cancers (0-14)

Leukemia
CNS
Lymphoma
Neuroblastoma
Soft tissue sarcomas
Kidney (Wilms)
Bone tumors
Germ-cell tumors
Retinoblastoma

2

Common Childhood Cancers (15-19)

Lymphoma
Germ cell
Leukemia
CNS
Soft tissue sarcoma
Bone
Thyroid carcinoma

3

Which syndromes are associated with increased risk of cancer in children?

Down syndrome
Beckwith-Wiedeman
Li Fraumeni syndrome

4

Brain Tumors Associated with Genetic Syndromes

Neurofibromatosis
Tuberous Sclerosis
Turcot Syndrome
Von Hipple Lindau
Gorlin

5

Kidney Tumors Associated with Genetic Syndromes

Congenital aniridia
Hemihypertrophy
GU malformations
WAGR
Denys-Drash
Frasier
Beckwith-Wiedemann

6

Bone Tumors Associated with Genetic Syndromes

Hereditary retinoblastoma
Paget's disease
Rothmund-Thompson
Li-Fraumeni syndrome
Poikiloderma, small stature, skeletal dysplasias

7

Liver Tumors Associated with Genetic Syndromes

Polyposis
Gardner
Beckwith-Wiedeman
Hemi-hypertrophy
Tyrosinemia
Glucogen storage disease
alpha-1 anti-trypsin
Hemochromotosis

8

Ionizing Radiations can Cause

Leukemia
Brain tumors

9

Radiation Therapy can Cause

Bone tumors

10

Radium (high dose) can Cause

Bone tumors

11

Prior Chemotherapy can Cause

Bone tumors
Leukemia

12

Immunosuppression can Cause

Lymphoma

13

EBV Infection can Cause

Lymphoma (Burkitt's)

14

Uncommon Symptoms for Possible CA and Possible CA

Recurrent fever & bone pain- leukemia
Morning headache with vomiting- CNS tumor
Neck mass not responding to antibiotics- lymphoma
chronic bone pain, swelling, limp- bone tumor
Progressive abdominal distension- abdominal tumor
Bleeding, bruising, pallor, fatigue-leukemia
Combined cytopenias-leukemia, marrow failure

15

Presenting Symptoms of Leukemia

Bone pain
Anemia
Fatigue
Fevers
Infection
Petechiae
Bleeding

16

Symptoms of Brain Tumors for a Child

Morning headaches
Vomiting
Decreased academics
Personality changes

17

Symptoms of brain Tumors for an Infant

Large head
Bulging fontenelle
Anorexia
FTT
Loss of milestones
Irritable
Shrill cry

18

Late Findings of Increased ICP

Cushings triad: hypertension, bradycardia, wide pulse pressure
Cheyne-Stokes Respirations

19

Management of Increased ICP

Oxygenation
Steroids if edema
No prolonged hyperventilation
EVD: drain into lateral ventricle
Surgical decompression

20

Signs of Lymphomas

Painless enlarged lymph nodes
Abdominal pain or mass
Compromise of vital structure
Fever
Night sweats
Weight loss
Fatigue
Pruritus
Pain with ETOH ingestion

21

What Mediastinal Masses are Medical Emergencies?

SVC
Superior Mediastinal syndromes

22

Mediastinal Mass

Depends on location
Fatal respiratory failure
Airway compression with sedation
Difficult to intubate with sedation

23

Emergency Management of a Mediastinal Mass

Steroids
Radiation

24

Signs of Abdominal Tumors

Distension
Palpable mass
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Constipation
Weight loss
Fever
Obstruction
pain
Jaundice
Hematuria
Renal failure

25

Signs of Bone Tumors

Pain
Tenderness
Limp
Soft tissue mass
Night pain
"Growing pains"
History of minor trauma
Pathologic fracture

26

Types of ALL

Precursor B cell (B-ALL)
Burkitts (mature B-ALL)
T cell (T ALL)

27

WHO classification of AML

Marrow with 20+% blasts, prior therapy, Down syndrome, MDS, cytogenetics

28

Predisposing Conditions for Leukemia

Li Fraumeni
Ataxia
Telangectasia
Neurofibromatosis
Bloom Syndrome
Klinefelter's
Ataxia telangectasia
Wiskott aldrich syndrome
Chronic immunosuppression
AIDS

29

Leukemia Presentation

Bone pain
Adenopathy
Hepatosplenomegaly
Thymic expansion
CNS symptoms
Testicular involvement

30

Bone Pain in Leukemia Due to

Expansion of marrow cavity
May stop walking or favor the painful site