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Flashcards in Pediatric Ortho Deck (100)
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1

Define Scoliosis

Lateral curvature of the spine >10 degrees by Cobb method

2

What are common orthopedic congenital defects"

Clubfoot
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
Spine deformities
Muscular dystrophy
Limb defects

3

Anatomic Changes in Clubfoot

Talus plantar flexed
Heel cord tight
Fore foot adducted/supinated

4

What is the Ponseti Method in Clubfoot?

Casting
Percutaneous heel cord lengthening

5

Physiological & Mechanical Factors in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)

Ligamentous laxity, hormonal, & family factors
Breech position & congenital deformities

6

Presentation of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)

Hip reduced but unstable and can be dislocated
Dislocation can be reduced
Fixed dislocation
Bony deformities

7

Barlow's Test

Hip reduced but can be dislocated
Knee bent, internal rotation, push down

8

Ortolani's Test

Hip dislocated but can be reduced
Knee bent, pull up, external rotation

9

Treatment of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)

Harness or pillow

10

What is Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease?

Loss of blood supply to femoral head

11

How here there loss of blood supply to the femoral head in Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease?

Head can collapse & subluxation of head
Eventually revascularizes

12

Symptoms of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

Variable hip/knee symptoms
Limping
Pain

13

What range of motion is limited in Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease?

Internal rotation
Abduction of hip

14

How to reduce pressure on femoral head in Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease?

Relative rest
Bracesm crutches
Traction
Adductor muscle release

15

Treatment of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

Femoral and/or acetabular osteotomy

16

Define Scoliosis

Lateral curvature of the spine >10 degrees by Cobb method

17

Types of Scoliosis

Idiopathic
Congenital
Secondary
Neuromuscular

18

Forms of Idiopathic Scoliosis

Lumbar
Thoracic
Thoracolumbar

19

Most common age group for idiopathic scoliosis

Adolescent (10 years to end of growth)

20

Most common type of scoliosis

Idiopathic scoliosis

21

Screening Methods for Scoliosis

Adam's forward bend test
Radiographic examination
MRI

22

Define Kyphosis

Increased thoracic curvature in the saggital plane

23

Types of Kyphosis

Postural
Scheuermann's disease

24

Postural Kyphosis

Usually in females
Gentler, more pliable curve
Corrects with time/bracing

25

Scheuermann's Disease

Osteochondrosis of the spine
Wedged vertebrae
Usually in males
Sharper curve
Surgical correction needed

26

Define Muscular Dystrophy

Progressive weakness & wasting of muscles

27

Signs/Symptoms of Muscular Dystrophy

Waddling gait
Fatigue
Mobility
Frequent infections
Psychological effects
Maintain function
Hx of motor developmental delays
Clumsiness
Frequent falls
Difficult climbing stairs, running, riding trike

28

Diagnosis of Muscular Dystrophy

Biopsy
Electromyography (EMG)

29

Treatment of Muscular Dystrophy

PT/OT
Bracing
Surgery (scoliosis)

30

Types Limb Defects

Polydactyly
Syndactyly