Organic Chemistry- Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry- Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Deck (100)
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1

Carboxylic acids derivatives replace what, on the carboxyl group with what?

The -OH on the carboxyl group with another leaving group (-HR2, -OR, and -OCOR)

2

Do the carboxylic acid derivatives react similarly to carboxylic acids?

Yes

3

What are the carboxylic acid derivatives?

Amides
Esters
Anhydrides

4

How are the carboxylic acids derivatives formed?

By condensation reaction iwth a carboxylic acid

5

What is condensation?

A reaction that combines two molecules into one, while losing a small molecule.

6

During the condensation of carboxylic acid, what small molecule is lost?

Water

7

How is the water molecule formed during the condensation of the carboxylic acid?

From the hydroxyl group of the carboxylic acid and a hydrogen associated with the incoming nucleophile.

8

What should you focus on when dealing with derivatives of carboxylic acid?

The relevant nucleophile that forms the derivative and the nomenclature of the functional group.

9

What are amides?

Compounds with the general formula RCONR2

10

How are amides named?

They are named by replacing the -oic acid suffic with -amide. Alkyl substituents on the nitrogen atom are listed as prefixes, and their location is specified with the letter N-

11

What are examples of Amides?

N-ethyl-N-methylbutanamide
N, N-dimethylethanamide
N-methylpropanamide

12

How are amides synthesized?

By the reaction of other carboxylic acid derivatives with either ammonia or an amine

13

Why will only primary and secondary amides undergo a reaction?

The loss of hydrogen from the nucleophile required for this reaction to take place

14

cyclic amides are called what?

Lactams

15

How are lactams named?

They are named according to the carbon atom bonded to the nitrogen.

16

Beta-lactams contain a bond between what?

The beta-carbon and the nitrogen

17

y-lactams contain a bond between what?

The y-carbon and the nitrogen

18

What are 4 examples of lactams?

Beta-lactam
y-lactam
Delta-lactam
Sigma-lactam

19

Why or why not do amides participate in hydrogen bonding?

Depending on the number of alkyl groups they have bonded

20

What are the boiling points of amides dependent on?

They're hydrogen bonding makes their boiling poits lower or on the same level as the boiling points of carboxylic acids.

21

What are esters?

The dehydration synthesis products of other carboxylic acid derivatives and alcohols

22

How are esters named?

By placing the esterfying group (The substituent bonded to the oxygen) as a prefix; the suffix -oate replaces -oic acid

23

How is ethyl acetate formed?

From the condensation of acetic acid and ethanol

24

What is ethyl acetate called in IUPAC?

Ethyl ethanoate

25

What are examples of esters?

Ethyl ethanoate
Isopropyl Butanoate

26

What is Fischer esterification?

Under acidic conditions, mixtures of carboxylic acids and alcohols will condense into esters

27

How can esters also be obtained?

From the reaction of anhydrides with alcohols.

28

Cyclic esters are called what?

Lactones

29

How are lactones named?

In the same manner as lactams with the name of the precursor acid molecules also included.

30

Why do esters usually have lower boiling points then carboxylic acids?

Because they lack hydrogen bonding