Organic Chemistry- Nitrogen- and Phosphorus-Containing Compounds Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry- Nitrogen- and Phosphorus-Containing Compounds Deck (74)
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1

What 3 elements make up 93% of the human body by weight?

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen

2

What comprises 3.2% of body weight?

Nitrogen

3

What comprises 1% of human body weight?

Phosphorus

4

What are amino acids?

Dipolar molecules that come together through a condensation reaction, forming peptides.

5

What are considered proteins?

Larger, folded peptide chains

6

What is a better description of amino acids?

Containing an amino group and a carboxyl group attached to a single carbon atom (the alpha-carbon). The other two substituents of the alpha-carbon are a hydrogen atom and a side chain referred to as the R group.

7

The alpha-carbon is what in Amino acids?

A Chiral center

8

What is the simplist amino acid?

Glycine

9

Why is glycine an exception to the amino acids?

Because its R group is a hydrogen atom.

10

All naturally occuring amino acids in Eukaryotes (except glycine) are what?

Optically active, and all are L-isomers.

11

How is the Fischer projection of an amion accid drawn?

With the amino group on the left. L-amino acids have (S) configurations.

12

What amino acid is an exception to the (S) configuration? Why?

Cysteine which is (R) because of the change in priority caused by the sulfur in its R group

13

Amino acids are what type of molecules? Why?

Amphoteric molecules
Because of their acidic carboxyl group and basic amino group

14

What are amphoteric molecules?

They can act as both acids and bases.

15

How can amino acids act as both acids and bases?

They can take on a positive charge by being protonated, and carboxyl groups can take on a negative charge by being deprotonated.

16

When amino acid is put in solution, what does it do?

It will take on both of these charges, forming a dipolar ion or zwitterion.

17

How an amino acids act s depend on what? Example?

The pH of the environment.
In basic solutions, the amino acid can become fully deprotonated
In acidic solutions, it can become fully protonated.

18

Each amino acid has properties defined by what?

Its R group

19

The 20 Eukaryotic proteogenic amino acids can be grouped into what 5 categories?

Nonpolar nonaromatic
Aromatic
Polar
Negatively charged (acidic)
Positively charged (basic)

20

Nonpolar nonaromatic amino acids tend to have side chains that are what?

Saturated hydrocarbons
Cyclic with a secondary amine
Contains sulfur

21

What amino acids are nonpolar nonacromatic?

Alanine
Valine
Leucine
Isoleucine
Methionine

22

Aromatic amino acids include what?

Tryptophan
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine

23

Nonpolar amino acids-- both nonaromatic and aromatic-- are what?

Also hydrophobic and tend to be sequestered in the interior of proteins

24

Polar amino acids tend to have what?

Terminal groups containing oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur

25

What are polar amino acid examples?

Serine
Theronine
Asparagine
Glutamine
Cysteine

26

What amino acids are included in negatively charged amino acids?

Aspartic acid and glutamic acid

27

What do negatively charged amino acids have?

Terminal carboxylate anions in their R groups

28

What amino acids are positively charged amino acids?

Arginine
Lysine
Histidine

29

What do positively charged amino acids have?

A protonated amino group in their R groups

30

What categories of amino acids are hydrophilic? What do they tend to form?

Polar
Acidic
and Basic amino acids
Tend to form hydrogen bond with water in aqueous solutions