Sacrum & Coccyx Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > Sacrum & Coccyx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sacrum & Coccyx Deck (58):
1

What part of the sacral ala is derived from the costal element?

Anterior 2/3

2

The costal element and true transverse process of sacrum unite to form what feature?

Sacral ala

3

How many fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint surfaces are present on the first sacral vertebral body?

4

4

How many joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of the first sacral segments?

5

5

What muscle may attach to the first sacral vertebral body?

Psoas major

6

What is the reported angulation of the first sacral articular facets?

Lie vertically in the coronal plane

7

What is the position of the sacral zygapophysis in adults?

Lies in the coronal plane for L5/S1

8

What is the orientation of the first sacral superior articular facet?

Backward, upward, medial (BUM)
Typically concave

9

What is the name given to the projection on the first sacral superior articular process?

Mammillary process

10

From the anterior view, the intervertebral discs of sacrum will be replaced by what feature?

Transverse ridges

11

An imaginary line drawn along the dorsal midline of sacrum is identified as the _____.

Median sacral crest

12

What forms the median sacal crest

Fused spinous processes and their spinous tubercles

13

What is the name given to the congenital condition in which the fifth lumbar spinous process i elongated, the sacrum exhibits spina bifida, and dorsiflexion produces pain?

Knife Clasp Syndrome

14

An imaginary line drawn from the superior articular process of S1 to the sacral cornu will form what feature?

Intermediate sacral crest

15

What forms the intermediate sacral crest?

Fused articular processes and their facets

16

What features may be identified along the intermediate sacral crest?

Mammillary process of S1
Sacral cornu of S5

17

What is the remnant of the inferior articular process and facet of S5?

Sacral cornu

18

What is the name of the inferior opening of the sacral spinal canal?

Sacral hiatus

19

What forms the lateral sacral crest?

Fused transverse processes
Transverse tubercles from S1 to S5

20

What is the sacral tuberosity?

Enlarged transverse tubercle of S2

21

What is the name of the joint formed by the sacral tuberosity?

Accessory sacro-iliac joint

22

What muscle is said to attach to the dorsal surface of the sacrum?

Iliacus

23

What feature is identified on the lateral surface of S1-S3?

Auricular surface

24

What classification of joint is formed by the auricular surface of sacrum?

Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

25

What feature does the anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S1 form?

Sacral promontory

26

What ligament is attached to the sacral hiatus?

Superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

27

How many synovial joints are typically present at sacrum?

4

28

What joint classifications are typically present at sacrum?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

29

What forms the posterior boundary for the fifth sacral spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

Sacral cornu
Coccygeal cornu
Superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
Intercornual ligament

30

What forms the anterior boundary for the fifth sacral spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

Vertebral body S5
vertebral body Co1
Deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
Intervertebral disc

31

What is the homolog for the posterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

Deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

32

What is the homolog for the anterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

Anterior sacrococcygeal ligament

33

What is the homolog for the ligamentum flavum at S5?

Superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

34

What forms the inferior boundary for the spinal canal?

Union of the superficial posterior and deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments

35

What ligament is formed by the union of the superficial posterior sacrococcygeal and the deep posterior sacroccygeal ligaments at Co1?

Posterior sacrococcygeal liament

36

What ligament is the homologof the intertransverse ligament at S5?

Lateral sacrococcygeal ligament

37

What ligament divides the sciatic foramen into the greater and lesser sciatic foramina?

Sacrospinous ligament

38

Which ligament has a broad attachment along the lateral margin of sacrum and coccyx and then attaches to the ischial tuberosity?

Sacrotuberous ligament

39

Which ligament represents a thickening of the fibrous capsule of the sacro-iliac joint?

Anterior sacro-iliac ligament

40

Which ligament is the strongest of the sacro-iliac ligaments and is penetrated by dorsi rami of the sacral spinal nerves?

Interosseous sacro-iliac ligament

41

Which ligament will attach the intermediate sacral crest of S1, lateral sacral crest of S2 to the posterior iliac spine?

Short posterior sacro-iliac ligament

42

Which ligament attaches the lateral sacral crest of S3 and S4 to the posterior superior iliac spine?

Long posterior sacro-iliac ligament

43

What is the homolog for the capsular ligament at S5?

Intercornual ligament

44

What is the number of coccygeal somites?

10

45

What is the typical number of segments that unite to form the adult coccyx?

4 segments

46

When is ossification of coccyx completed?

About age 30

47

What is the direction of fusion of coccygeal segments?

From caudal to cranial, the last segments to fuse together are Co1 and Co2

48

What is the direction of the coccygeal curve?

Posterior (kyphotic)

49

What is the major motion and range of motion for coccyx?

Flexion - extension
5-20 degrees

50

How many coccygeal nerves are present in the fetus?

Typically 5 pairs of cocygeal nerves are present

51

How many coccygeal nerves are present in the adult?

Typically only one pair of coccygeal nerves remain

52

What forms the coccygeal nerve plexus?

S4, S5 and Co1 nerves

53

What is the ganglion impar?

A midline sympathetic ganglion

54

What innervates the coccygeal glomus or coccygeal body?

Both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers are indentified

55

What muscles attach to the coccyx?

Ischiococcygeus
Levator ani

56

What joint classifications are present for coccyx?

Cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

57

What forms the posterior boundary for the first coccygeal spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

Sacral cornu
Coccygeal cornu
Superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
Intercornual ligament

58

What forms the anterior boundary for the first coccygeal spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

Vertebral body S5
Vertebral body Co1
Deep posterior sacroccygeal ligament
Intervertebral disc