Staging & Tumor Types Flashcards Preview

Oncology > Staging & Tumor Types > Flashcards

Flashcards in Staging & Tumor Types Deck (75):
1

Define Staging

Process of finding out how much cancer is in a person's body & where it is located

2

What does staging help with?

Treatment plans
Predict person's prognosis

3

Main Factors in Staging

Location of primary tumor
Tumor size & extent of tumors
Lymph node involvement
Presence or absence of distant metastasis

4

How are cancers staged?

Imaging
Lab tests
PE
Pathology reports

5

Types of Staging

Clinical staging
Pathologic staging

6

Define Clinical Staging

Estimate of the extent of cancer based on results

7

Most Common Staging System

TNM

8

What does TNM stand for?

T: primary tumor
N: nodes
M: metastasis

9

What information about the primary tumor is given with the T number?

Size
How deep it has grown into the organ
If it has grown into nearby tissues

10

Define TX

Tumor can't be measured

11

Define T0

No evidence of primary tumor

12

DefineTis

Cancer cells are only growing into most superficial layers

13

Define N in the TNM Staging

Describes whether the cancer has spread into the lymph nodes

14

Define NX

Nearby lymph nodes can't be evaluated

15

Define N0

Nearby lymph nodes do not contain cancer

16

Meaning of Numbers After N

Size
Location
# of nodes

17

Define M in the TNM Staging

Tell whether cancer has spread to a distant body part

18

Define M0

No cancer spread was found

19

Define M1

Cancer has spread to distant organs or tissues

20

Stage 0

Carcinoma in situ

21

Stage I, II, III

Higher numbers indicate more extensive disease

22

Stage IV

Cancer has spread to distant tissues or organs

23

Other Staging Terms

In situ
Localized
Regional
Distant
Unknown

24

Define Localized

Limited to place where it started
No spread

25

Define Regional

Nearby lymph nodes

26

Define Distant

Distant part of the body
Ex: brain, liver, bones

27

Tumor Types

Carcinoma
Sarcoma
Leukemia
Lymphoma
Multiple Myeloma
Melanoma
Brain & Spinal Cord Tumors
Others

28

Define Carcinoma

Cancer formed by epithelial cells
Ex: adenocarcinoma, BCC, SCC, transitional cell carcinoma

29

Define Adenocarcinoma

Cancer that produces fluids or mucus

30

Define Basal Cell Carcinoma

Cancer that begins in the base layer of epidermis

31

Define Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Cancer in the epithelial cells that lie just beneath the outer surface of the skin, stomach, intestines, lungs, bladder, & kidneys

32

Define Transitional Cell Carcinoma

Cancer in the epithelial cells called transitional epithelium or urothelium

33

Define Sarcoma

Cancers that form in bone & soft tissue

34

Most Common Cancer of the Bone

Osteosarcoma

35

Most Common Soft Tissue Cancers

Leiomyosarcoma
Kaposi sarcoma
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma

36

Define Leukemia

Cancers that begin in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow

37

4 Common Types of Leukemia

Acute Lymphoblastic (ALL)
Acute Myeloid (AML)
Chronic Lymphoblastic (CML)
Chronic Myeloid (CML)

38

Define Lymphoma

Cancer that begins in the lymphocytes (T or B cells)

39

2 Main Types of Lymphoma

Hodgkin's
Non-Hodgkin's

40

Define Multiple Myeloma

Cancer that begins in the plasma cells

41

Define Brain & Spinal Cord Tumors

Named based on type of cell they formed & where tumor first formed in the CNS

42

Other Types of Tumors

Germ Cell tumors
Neuroendocrine tumors
Carcinoid tumors

43

Define Neuroendocrine Tumors

Release hormones into the blood

44

Define Carcinoid Tumors

Serotonin release

45

Define Adenocarcinoma

Cancer that forms in mucus-secreting glands throughout the body

46

Types of Adenocarcinomas

Lung CA
Prostate CA
Pancreatic CA
Esophageal CA
Colorectal CA

47

Where do the pancreatic adenocarcinomas form?

Pancreatic ducts

48

Where is the cancer found in esophageal adenocarcinoma?

Glandular cells

49

Where is the cancer found in colorectal adenocarcinoma?

Intestinal gland cells that line inside of colon or rectum

50

2 Types of Small Cell Lung Cancer

Oat cell
Combined small cell

51

3 Sub-types of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

SCC
Large cell carcinoma
Aenocarcinoma

52

2 Types of Carcinoid Tumors

Lung
Gastrointestinal

53

2 Types of Lung Carcinoid Tumors

Typical
Atypical

54

Where do gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors form?

Stomach
Small intestine
Rectum
Appendix

55

Where are squamous cells found?

Tissue that forms the surface of the skin, lining of hollow organs, lining of the respiratory tract & digestive tracts

56

Where are clear cells found?

Breast, on the skin, lower urinary tract, & organs of female reproductive system
Renal cell carcinoma

57

Define Germ Cell Carcinoma

Cells that develop in the embryo & become the cells that make up the reproductive system

58

Where do germ cell carcinomas arise?

Ovaries/Testes (most common)
Head
Chest
Abdomen
Pelvis
Lower back

59

Different Types of Germ Cell Carcinomas

Teratomas
Germinomas
Endodermal sinus tumor/yolk sac tumor
Choriocarcinoma
Embryonal carcinoma

60

Define Myxoma

Myxoid tumor of primitive connective tissue

61

Most Common Primary Tumor of the Heart in Adults

Myxoma

62

What does a pathology report entail?

Diagnosis determined by examining cells & tissue under a microscope
Gross description form pathologist

63

Types of Tissue Biopsy

Fine needle
Open (punch, excision)
Surgical excision
Cytology (from fluid)

64

Tissue Processing

Permanent section
Frozen section

65

Information Within a Pathology Report

Patient information
Gross description
Microscopic description
Diagnosis
Tumor size
Tumor margins
Other information
Pathologist's signature

66

Diagnostic Terms Used on a Pathology Report

Abscess
Atypical
Carcinoma
Dysplasia
Granuloma
Hyperplasia
Metaplasia
Well differentiated
Poorly differentiated
Mitotic rate/index

67

Define Atypical on a Pathology Report

Vague warning but not worried enough to call it cancer

68

Define Carcinoma on a Pathology Report

Neoplasm derived from epithelium

69

Define Dysplasia on a Pathology Report

Atypical proliferation of cells

70

Define Granuloma on a Pathology Report

Type of inflammation characterized by accumulations of macrophages which combine into "giant cells"

71

Define Hyperplasia on a Pathology Report

Proliferation of cells which is not neoplastic

72

Define Metaplasia on a Pathology Report

One type of cell is replaced with another type of cell

73

Define Well Differentiated on a Pathology Report

How much or how little tumor tissue looks like normal tissue it came from

74

Define Poorly Differentiated on a Pathology Report

Lack the structure & function of normal cells & grow uncontrollable

75

Define Mitotic Rate

Measure of how fast cancer cells are dividing & growing