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Nutritional Biochem > Vitamin E > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vitamin E Deck (25)
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1

what two classes is vitamin E divided into

1. tocopherols (saturated)
2. tocotrienols (unsaturated)

2

what is the most biologically active form of vitamin E

RRR alpha-tocopherol (D-alpha-tocopherol)

3

individuals on __ diets may inadvertently limit their vitamin E uptake

low-fat

4

the in enterocyte, vitamin E is incorporated into ___ for transport through the lymphatic system ultimately reaching the circulation

chylomicrons

5

______ remnants deliver vitamin E to the liver using receptor mediated endocytosis

chylomicron

6

discrimination between the different vitamer forms of vitamin E does not occur during their absorption into the ______

small intestine or in their packaging into chylomicrons

7

in the liver RRR-alpha-tocopherol is incorporated into ___ for transport to the extrahepatic tissues

VLDL's

8

a specific protein called _______ ,which is made in the liver, mediates the transfer of RRR-alpha-tocopherol into the VLDL's

alpha-tocopherol transfer protein

9

the liver will secrete the other forms of vitamin E into the ____ via bile

feces

10

____ can interfere with the enzymes of vitamin K cycle

tocopherol quinone

11

oxidation of the phytyl tail by W and beta-oxidation lead to products called

alpha-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman (alpha-CEHC)

12

high intakes of vitamin E can interfere with all other fat soluble vitamins like

beta-carotene

13

vitamin E can block the regeneration of the reduced form of vitamin ___, and thereby interfering with blood coagulation

K

14

why do some physicians recommend discontinuing vitamin E before surgery

risk of hemorrhaging

15

what 3 routes does RRR-alpha-tocopherol get to extrahepatic tissues

1. LDL receptor mediated endocytosis
2. lipoprotein lipase mediated uptake from VLDLs
3. phospholipid transfer protein (PTP) facilitates vitamin E transfer from lipoproteins to cell phospholipid membrane

16

within cytoplasm of the cell, vitamin E ca bind to a specific tocopherol binding protein called

adenosine triphosphate binding cassette A1 (ABC A1)

17

tocopherol -> ___ -> tocopheroxyl radical

ascorbate glutathione or ubiquinone

18

vitamin E can inhibit protein kinase C by

dephosphorylation via activation of a specific protein phosphatase (PP2A)

19

how does vitamin E inhibit heard disease and stroke

1. decrease LDL oxidation and decrease macrophage uptake
2. decrease protein kinase C activity
3. decrease monocyte endothelial adhesion
4. decrease scavenger receptor expression: decrease oxidized LDL uptake
5. decrease alpha-tropomyosin expression: decrease smooth muscle hypertrophy
6. decrease monocyte SOD activity
7. increase NO production: increase arterial dilation
8. increase PGI2: decrease TXA2: increase vasodilation: decrease platelet aggregation
9. increase carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman CEHC: decrease blood pressure

20

what 4 positive functions do tocotrienols have

1. suppress activity of HMG-CoA reductase: reduce cholesterol synth
2. increase HMG-CoA reductase degradation and decrease efficiency of translation of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA
3. suppressed tumor cell angiogenesis
4. prevent glutamate induced neurotoxicity (parkinsons and alzheimer's)

21

what are the three increasing apoptosis mechanisms of gamma-tocotrienol

1. increased pro-apoptotic BAX expression
2. decreased anti-apoptotic BCL-2 expression
3. decreased the oncogene Myc expression

22

vitamin E is shown to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer

T

23

there are no trials seen of vitamin E providing benefiting effects to those with parkinsons and alzheimers

T

24

vitamin E when taken with food may prevent heart disease, but no evidence it is preventative when taken it as a supplement

T

25

vitamin E decreases peoples chance with ischemic stroke

T