Flashcards in 2) Neuro-Biology of Depression Deck (20):
What are the functions of the frontal lobe?
Speech (Broca's area)
Behaviour with temporal lobe
What are the functions of the parietal lobe?
Understanding language (Wernicke's area)
Recognition and construction
What are the functions of the temporal lobe?
Emotion and behaviour
What are the functions of the occipital lobe?
What areas of the brain are indicated in depression?
What are the functions of the limbic system?
What are the functions of the amygdala?
Conditioning and emotion processing
What are some imaging techniques used to view the brain?
What changes are seen on MRI in depression?
White matter changes
What changes are seen in the hippocampus in depression?
Hippocampal volume reduced
What does a fMRI measure?
Difference in oxygen rich and poor blood flow to measure neuronal activity
What changes are found by a fMRI in depression?
Amygdala and cingulate gyrus signals are abnormal
What do PET and SPET scans measure and how?
Use of gamma emitting radio-isotopes that connect to certain structures in the brain.
Measure blood flow, brain activity and receptors
What does malfunction of the prefrontal areas of the brain during depression lead to?
Enhanced sensitivity to pain, anxiety and depressive ruminations
Dysregulation of emotional control
Describe the changes to the HPA axis in depression:
Dysregulation may be related to hippocampal atrophy
Describe the changes in the thyroid hormone pathway during depression:
TSH response to TRH is blunted
Thyroxine sometimes used in depression
Describe the changes to cytokines in depression and what symptoms this can cause:
Over activity of cytokines leading to: fatigue, loss of appetite, loss of libido and hypersensitivity to pain
What is BDNF and what is its role?
Brain derived neuro-trophic factor
Cell maintenance and plasticity of brain (form new connections)
How does BDNF change in depression?
Low levels, can affect limbic system