2) Neuro-Biology of Depression Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2) Neuro-Biology of Depression Deck (20):
1

What are the functions of the frontal lobe?

Motor
Speech (Broca's area)
Behaviour with temporal lobe

2

What are the functions of the parietal lobe?

Sensory
Understanding language (Wernicke's area)
Orientation
Recognition and construction

3

What are the functions of the temporal lobe?

Auditory
Memory
Emotion and behaviour

4

What are the functions of the occipital lobe?

Vision

5

What areas of the brain are indicated in depression?

Prefrontal cortex
Limbic system

6

What are the functions of the limbic system?

Emotion
Motivation
Memory

7

What are the functions of the amygdala?

Conditioning and emotion processing

8

What are some imaging techniques used to view the brain?

MRI
fMRI
SPECT
PET

9

What changes are seen on MRI in depression?

White matter changes

10

What changes are seen in the hippocampus in depression?

Hippocampal volume reduced

11

What does a fMRI measure?

Difference in oxygen rich and poor blood flow to measure neuronal activity

12

What changes are found by a fMRI in depression?

Amygdala and cingulate gyrus signals are abnormal

13

What do PET and SPET scans measure and how?

Use of gamma emitting radio-isotopes that connect to certain structures in the brain.
Measure blood flow, brain activity and receptors

14

What does malfunction of the prefrontal areas of the brain during depression lead to?

Enhanced sensitivity to pain, anxiety and depressive ruminations
Psychomotor retardation
Dysregulation of emotional control

15

Describe the changes to the HPA axis in depression:

Cortisol high
Dysregulation may be related to hippocampal atrophy

16

Describe the changes in the thyroid hormone pathway during depression:

TSH response to TRH is blunted
Thyroxine sometimes used in depression

17

Describe the changes to cytokines in depression and what symptoms this can cause:

Over activity of cytokines leading to: fatigue, loss of appetite, loss of libido and hypersensitivity to pain

18

What is BDNF and what is its role?

Brain derived neuro-trophic factor
Cell maintenance and plasticity of brain (form new connections)

19

How does BDNF change in depression?

Low levels, can affect limbic system

20

What are the changes to sleep patterns in depression?

Reduced REM sleep latency
Early morning waking