Bacterial & Viral Infections Flashcards Preview

Dermatology > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bacterial & Viral Infections Deck (72)
Loading flashcards...
1

Characteristics of Impetigo

Common, contagious, superficial skin infection
Culprits: strep, staph, or both
Self limiting
High incidence in children
Post strep glomerulonephritis

2

PE Findings in Impetigo

Nonbullous and/or bulls
Vesicles & bullae contain clear yellow or slightly turbid fluid without surrounding erythema
"Honey" crusted

3

Treatment of Impetigo

Bactroban (Mupirocin) ointment
Severe: oral antibiotics (Bactrim, clindamycin, or doxycycline)

4

Characteristics of Meningococcemia

N. meningitidis
Highest incidence: midwinter-early spring ages 6 months-3 years
Most rapidly lethal form of septic shock

5

PE Findings in Meningococcemia

High fever
Tachycardia
Mild hypotension
Meningeal irritation
Appears acutely ill

6

Early Exanthem of Meningococcemia

Soon after onset
Pink macules/papules, sparsely distributed on trunk/lower extremities, face, palate, conjunctivae

7

Later Lesions of Meningococcemia

Petechiae in center of macules
Lesions become hemorrhagic within hours
Purpura fulminans
Hemorrhagic bullae

8

Work Up of Meningococcemia

Blood cultures
Pus from nodular lesion
D-dimers

9

Treatment of Meningococcemia

Cefotaxine (Claforin)
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
Hemodynamic stabilization

10

Characteristics of Bacterial Endocarditis

Staph aureus or strep viridans
Proliferation of microorganisms on the endocardium of the heart
Incidence increasing in elderly, IVDU, & prosthetic valves

11

Important H&P Findings for Bacterial Endocarditis

Fever
Chills/sweats
Anorexia/weight loss/malaise
Heart murmur
Arterial emboli
Splenomegaly
Hematuria

12

Skin Lesions in Bacterial Endocarditis

January lesions
Osler's nodes
Subungual Splinter hemorrhage
Petchial lesions

13

Describe Janeyway Lesions

Non-tender, hemorrhagic maculopapular lesions on palms & soles

14

Describe Osler's Nodes

Painful, red nodules on fingertips

15

Describe Petechial Lesions

Small, non-blanching, reddish-brown merciless on extremities, upper chest, mucus membranes
Occurs in crops
Asymptomatic red streaks in nail bed

16

Work Up for Bacterial Endocarditis

Blood cultures
CBC
CMP
Coags
Echo

17

Treatment of Bacterial Endocarditis

PCN-G
Nafcillin
Gentamycin
Vanco in MRSA
Zyvox in MRSA

18

Characteristics of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Common May-September
Can be fatal

19

Important History to Obtain for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Hx of tick bite
Outdoor activity
Prodrome: anorexia, irritability, malaise

20

PE Findings of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

1-2 weeks after bite
Fever (>102)
Chills
Weakness
Headache
Photophobia

21

Skin Lesions in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Initially: 2-6 mm, pink blanching macules on extremities; spread centrally
Evolve to papules & petechiae over hours to days

22

Rash Movement in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Wrists
Forearms
Ankles
Palms

23

Treatment for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Doxycycline
Pregnancy: Chloramphenical

24

Bug that Causes Lyme Disease

Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

25

Rash Description of Lyme Disease

Appears several days after infection
Last few hours to several weeks
Very small or very large
Mimic hives, eczema, sunburn, poison ivy, flea bites
Can itch/feel hot or not felt at al
Can disappear and return later

26

Symptoms of Lyme Disease

Headache
Stiff neck
Aches & pains in muscles & joints
Low-grade fever & chills
Fatigue
Poor appetite
Sore throat
Swollen glands
Arthritis-like symptoms may develop

27

Diagnosing Lyme Disease

Look for rash
Based on symptoms & Hx of tick bite

28

Treatment of Early-Stage Lyme Disease

Doxycycline: >8 years
Amoxicillin: adults, children, pregnant or breast feeding women

29

Characteristics of Cellulitis

Acute, spreading infections of dermal & subcutaneous tissues through a skin portal
Staph aureus & group A strep
Hx of trauma
Dog, cat, human bites
Common in DM & PVD

30

PE Findings in Cellulitis

Warmth
Erythema
Edema
Tenderness of affected area
Margin not palpable
Violaceous color & bullae = strep pneumo