Skin Cancers & Health Maintenance Flashcards Preview

Dermatology > Skin Cancers & Health Maintenance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Cancers & Health Maintenance Deck (57)
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1

General Skin Care

Limit bath time
Avoid strong soaps
Shave carefully
Pat dry
Moisturize dry skin
Eat a healthy diet

2

Hydrating the Skin

Emollient immediately after bathing or showering

3

Best Emollients

Eucerin
Vanicream
Cetaphil
Nutraderm
Aquaphor
Vaseline

4

Smoking & the Skin

Thickened "leathery" skin
Prominent wrinkles
Damages collagen & elastin
Smoking narrows tiny blood vessels

5

Prevention of Skin Cancer

Sunscreen > SPF 30
Wear protective clothing
Schedule activities before 10 AM or after 4 PM
Avoid all tanning activity
Extra caution near water, snow, & sand

6

Educate on Sunscreen Use

Reapply every 2 hours
Reapply after swimming or sweating
Apply 15-20 minutes before sun exposure

7

Screening & Early Detection of Skin Cancer

Inspect moles for changes
Remove suspicious moles
Remove AK & other precancerous lesions

8

When should someone perform monthly self-exams for screening for sun cancer?

Personal history of skin cancer
1st degree family history of skin cancer
Precursor lesions
Sun damaged skin

9

Types of Skin Cancers

Melanoma
BCC
SCC
Kaposi's Sarcoma

10

Epidemiology of Melanoma

Great majority of skin cancer deaths
Men = Women

11

Major Risk Factors of Melanoma

Fair skin
Episodic intense sun exposure (severe blistering sunburn history)
1st degree family history
Precursor lesions

12

ABCs of Melanoma

A: asymmetric
B: border irregularity
C: color
D: diameter
E: enlargement or evolutions

13

7 Point Checklist

Major: change in size, color, shape
Minor: inflammation, bleeding or crusting, sensory change, lesion diameter >6 mm

14

Define Nevus

Congenital discoloration of a circumscribed area of the skin due to pigmentation

15

Define Dysplastic Nevus

Nevus which has some malignant characteristics

16

Define Breslow Thickness

Refers to tumor thickness

17

Define Clark Level

Refers to anatomical descriptor of depth of the malignant cells

18

Subtypes of Melanoma

Superficial spreading melanoma
Nodular melanoma
Lentigo maligna melanoma
Acral lentiginous melanoma

19

Superficial Spreading Melanoma

Great prognosis
Men: torso
Women: legs
30-50 years old

20

Nodular Melanoma

Invasive from onset
Poor prognosis
Any site
Diagnosed in 6th decade of life

21

Lentigo Maligna Melanoma

Tendency for H&N
More common >60 years old
Least aggressive of melanomas

22

Acral Lentiginous Melanoma

Occurs on palms, soles, sublingual areas, & mucous membranes
More common in darker skin types
Diagnosed at advanced stage
Poor prognosis

23

Clinical Presentation of Acral Lentiginous Melanoma

Longitudinal pigmented streak
Appearance: irregular in shape, develops quickly, widen & darker
Pigmented globules
Refer for biopsy

24

Benign Longitudinal Melanonychia

Pigmented bands
Trauma
Medications
Infections
Other issues

25

Medications That can Cause Benign Longitudinal Melanonychia

Minocycline
Chemo
Anti-malarials

26

Infections that can Cause Benign Longitudinal Melanonychia

Fungal

27

Other Issues that can Cause Benign Longitudinal Melanonychia

Addison's
B12 deficiency
Hemochromatosis

28

Malignant Longitudinal Melanonychia

Solitary
Most frequent: thumb/great toe

29

Define Halo Nevus

Pigmented nevus surrounded by de-pigmented zone

30

What is the concerning for the presence of melanoma?

Sudden onset of multiple halo nevi