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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (16)
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1

in the acid/base balance, what is being regulated and why?

- hydrogen ion conc = [H+]
- 60milimol H+ are produced by metabolism daily and these need to be excreted in urine = urine is acidic

2

why is bicarbonate important?

- other buffer systems reach equilibrium
- carbonic acid is removed as CO2
- the limit is the initial conc of HCO3-

3

equation for acid/base

H+ + HCO3- _ H2CO3 _ CO2 + H2O

4

what is the respiratory component?

pCO2

5

what is the metabolic component?

HCO3-

6

what is acidosis (acidaemia) ?

an increase of H+, or a process tending to cause an increase in H+

7

what is alkalosis (alkalaemia) ?

a decrease in h+, or a process tending to cause a decrease in H+

8

what is respiratory acidosis?

an increase in H+ due to an increase in pCO2

9

what is respiratory alkalosis?

a decrease in H+ due to a decrease in pcO2

10

what is metabolic acidosis?

an increase in H+ due to a decrease in HCO3-

11

what is metabolic alkalosis?

a decrease in H+ due to an increase in HCO3-

12

what are the problems with the acid/base equation?

1. too much H+
2. too much CO2
3. too little H+
4. too little CO2

13

how does the body compensate for too much H+?

the lungs blow off CO2

14

how does the body compensate for too much CO2?

the kidneys get rid of H+

15

what are the causes of respiratory acid/base disorders?

- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- chocking
- bronchopneumonia
- hysterical over breathing
- mechanical over-ventilation
- raised intracranial pressure

16

what are the causes of metabolic acid/base disorders?

- impaired H+ excretion
- increased H+ production or ingestion
- loss of HCO3-
- loss of H+ in vomit
- alkali injestion
- potassium deficiency