Flashcards in stridor and sleep apnoea Deck (14)
what is stridor?
- inspiratory wheeze due to large airway obstruction (larynx/trachea/major bronchi)
what are the causes of stridor in children?
- infections eg croup, epiglottitis, diptheria
- foreign body
- other eg burns
what are the causes of stridor in adults?
- neoplasms eg larynx, trachea, major bronchi
- trauma eg strangulation, burns
how do you treat laryngeal obstruction?
- treat underlying cause eg foreign body removal, anaphalaxis
- mask bag ventilation with high flow O2
how do you treat malignancy airway obstruction?
- tumour removal
- tumour compression
what is acute anaphylaxis?
type 1 immediate hypersensitvity (IgE)
- flushing, pruritusm urticaria
- stridor, wheeze and resp failure
how do you treat anaphylaxis?
- IM epinephrine (adrenaline)
- IV antihistamine
- IV corticosteroid
- high flow O2
- nebulised bronchodilators
- endotracheal intubation if necessary
how do you precaution for anaphylaxis?
- allergen avoidance
- immunotherapy - for bee stings
- self-administered epinephrine
what is snoring?
- relaxation of pharyngeal dilator muscles during sleep
- upper airway narrowing, turbulent airflow and vibration of soft palate and tongue base
what is obstructive sleep apnoea?
- intermittent upper airway collapse in sleep
- apnoeas or hypopnoeas +/- hypoxaemia
- recurrent arousals/sleep fragmentation
what are risk factors for sleep apnoea?
- enlarged tonsils, adenoids
- oropharyngeal deformity
- drugs : benzodiazepines, opiates, alcohol
- post-operative period after anaesthesia
what are the consequences of sleep apnoea?
- excessive daytime sleepiness
- personality change
- cognitive / functional impairment
- raised CRP
- impaired endothelial function and impaired glucose tolerance
how do you diagnose OSA?
- snoring and EDS
- overnight sleep study eg