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Flashcards in stridor and sleep apnoea Deck (14)
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1

what is stridor?

- inspiratory wheeze due to large airway obstruction (larynx/trachea/major bronchi)

2

what are the causes of stridor in children?

- infections eg croup, epiglottitis, diptheria
- foreign body
- anaphalaxis
- other eg burns

3

what are the causes of stridor in adults?

- neoplasms eg larynx, trachea, major bronchi
- anaphalaxis
- trauma eg strangulation, burns

4

how do you treat laryngeal obstruction?

- treat underlying cause eg foreign body removal, anaphalaxis
- mask bag ventilation with high flow O2
- cricothyroidotomy
- tracheostomy

5

how do you treat malignancy airway obstruction?

- tumour removal
- tumour compression
- radiotherapy

6

what is acute anaphylaxis?

type 1 immediate hypersensitvity (IgE)
- flushing, pruritusm urticaria
- hypotension
- stridor, wheeze and resp failure

7

how do you treat anaphylaxis?

- IM epinephrine (adrenaline)
- IV antihistamine
- IV corticosteroid
- high flow O2
- nebulised bronchodilators
- endotracheal intubation if necessary

8

how do you precaution for anaphylaxis?

- allergen avoidance
- immunotherapy - for bee stings
- self-administered epinephrine

9

what is snoring?

- relaxation of pharyngeal dilator muscles during sleep
- upper airway narrowing, turbulent airflow and vibration of soft palate and tongue base

10

what is obstructive sleep apnoea?

- intermittent upper airway collapse in sleep
- apnoeas or hypopnoeas +/- hypoxaemia
- recurrent arousals/sleep fragmentation

11

what are risk factors for sleep apnoea?

- enlarged tonsils, adenoids
- obesity
- oropharyngeal deformity
- drugs : benzodiazepines, opiates, alcohol
- post-operative period after anaesthesia

12

what are the consequences of sleep apnoea?

- excessive daytime sleepiness
- personality change
- cognitive / functional impairment
- hypertension
- raised CRP
- impaired endothelial function and impaired glucose tolerance

13

how do you diagnose OSA?

- snoring and EDS
- overnight sleep study eg
full polysomnography

14

how do you treat OSA?

- remove underlying cause
- CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure)