Flashcards in points to learn Deck (71)
markers of SLE
IgG and postitive ANA
how to test for CF in newborn
immuno-reactive trypsin raised
normal position of ET tube
2cm above the carina
when is ground glass opacity seen
daltons law of partial pressure
at constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
as volume increases, pressure decreases
the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
where are asbestosis inhaled fibred deposited
in the bifurcaitons of alveolar ducts
what happens when asbestos is deposited?
causes alveolar macrophage alveolitis which causes a process of fibrosis
why does asbestosis have pleural plaques?
asbestos drains via lymphatic drainage and pleural cavities - this forms pleural plaques
they are benign and asymptomatic but may lead to pleural effusion
which is the most carcinogenic asbestos fibre?
are straight or curved asbestos fibres more dangerous
when is ARDS most serious?
secondary to sepsis
what is the O2 goal for ARDS?
what drugs can be risk factors for OSA?
benzodiazepides. opiates and alcohol
what is OSA a big risk factor for
what is the CTFR gene?
an anion channel found on the apical membrane of epithelial cells
what are some complictions of CF
bronchiectaiss, pancreatic insuficiency, meconium ileus, male infertility, portal hypertension
how do CF affect exocrine cells of the pancreas?
they become blocked due to HCO3 not being produced by duct cells - this causes early activation of pancreatic enzymes - autodestruction of pancrease = malabsoption - treat with creon and ADEK supplements
how does CF affect enocrine cells of the pacnreas?
destrutcion of islets of langerhan - they are replaced by fatty tissue and so patients require insulin
what pattern of inheritance is CF?
why do you see signet rings in bronchiectasis on CT?
the bronchiole walls have thickened and widened
when is keratinisation lost?
as you go deeper into the epithelium
where are club cells found?
what is the diff between terniaml and resp bronchioles?
resp bronchioles can gas exchnage
what do type 1 pneumocytes do?
what are conchae?
fleshy bits in the nose which increase SA
where are seromucous glands and venous sinuses found?
what is the trachea made of?