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1

markers of SLE

IgG and postitive ANA

2

how to test for CF in newborn

immuno-reactive trypsin raised

3

normal position of ET tube

2cm above the carina

4

when is ground glass opacity seen

EAA

5

daltons law of partial pressure

at constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases

6

boyles law

as volume increases, pressure decreases

7

henrys law

the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid

8

where are asbestosis inhaled fibred deposited

in the bifurcaitons of alveolar ducts

9

what happens when asbestos is deposited?

causes alveolar macrophage alveolitis which causes a process of fibrosis

10

why does asbestosis have pleural plaques?

asbestos drains via lymphatic drainage and pleural cavities - this forms pleural plaques
they are benign and asymptomatic but may lead to pleural effusion

11

which is the most carcinogenic asbestos fibre?

crocidolite

12

are straight or curved asbestos fibres more dangerous

straight

13

when is ARDS most serious?

secondary to sepsis

14

what is the O2 goal for ARDS?

88-95%

15

what drugs can be risk factors for OSA?

benzodiazepides. opiates and alcohol

16

what is OSA a big risk factor for

pulmonary hypertension

17

what is the CTFR gene?

an anion channel found on the apical membrane of epithelial cells

18

what are some complictions of CF

bronchiectaiss, pancreatic insuficiency, meconium ileus, male infertility, portal hypertension

19

how do CF affect exocrine cells of the pancreas?

they become blocked due to HCO3 not being produced by duct cells - this causes early activation of pancreatic enzymes - autodestruction of pancrease = malabsoption - treat with creon and ADEK supplements

20

how does CF affect enocrine cells of the pacnreas?

destrutcion of islets of langerhan - they are replaced by fatty tissue and so patients require insulin

21

what pattern of inheritance is CF?

autosomal recessive

22

why do you see signet rings in bronchiectasis on CT?

the bronchiole walls have thickened and widened

23

when is keratinisation lost?

as you go deeper into the epithelium

24

where are club cells found?

terminal bronchioles

25

what is the diff between terniaml and resp bronchioles?

resp bronchioles can gas exchnage

26

what do type 1 pneumocytes do?

gas exchnage

27

what are conchae?

fleshy bits in the nose which increase SA

28

where are seromucous glands and venous sinuses found?

lamina propria

29

what is the trachea made of?

fibrocartilage

30

what changes occur going into the bronchioles?

loss of cartilage
columnar to cuboidal