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Flashcards in (microbiology) respiratory tract infection Deck (42)
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what is strep throat?

- exudate - cells that have seeped out of the blood
- pus
- sore throat
- dysphagia - hard to swallow
- dysphonia - hard to speak
- 1-5 days


what is tonsillitis?

- swollen tonsils
- erythematous
- dysphagia
- dysphonia
- recurrent
- tonsillectomy - rate of mortality because of internal carotid artery


what is quincy?

- complication of tonsillitis
- tonsillar abscess
- can be drained - beware the internal carotid artery


what is epiglottitis?

cant swallow own spit and start drooling


what are the range of lower respiratory tract infections?

- acute bronchitis
- acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis
- pneumonia
- influenza


what is the common cold?

- acute viral infection of the nasal passages
- sore throat
- mild fever
- spread by droplets and formites
- complications: sinusitis, acute bronchitis
- eg adenovirus, rhinovirus (1-5 days) , respiraotry syncytical virus


what is acute sinusitis?

- preceded by a common cold
- purulent nasal discharge
- resolves in 10 days
- treatment is mostly viral aetiology but sometimes antibiotics


what is diphtheria?

- life threatening due to toxin production
- characteristic pseudo-membrane
- 1-10 days


what is acute bronchitis?

- preceded by common cold
- clinical features: productive cough, fever, normal chest exam, normal chest xray, transient (short duration) wheeze
- antibiotics are not indicated


what is acute exacerbation of COPD?

- chronic suptum production, bronchoconstriction, inflammation of the airways
- clinical features: usually preceded by upper resp tract infection, increased sputum production, increased suptum purulence, more wheezy, breathless
- on exam: resp distress, wheeze, coarse crackles, may be cyanosed


how to manage acute exacerbation of COPD?

primary care: antibiotic eg doxycycline, amoxicillin
bronchodilator inhalers, short course of steroids
refer to hospital if evidence of resp failure
in hospital: measure arterial blood gasses, CXR to look for other diseases, give O2


what is the management of community acquired pneumonia?

- antibiotics: amoxicillin, deoxycycline
- oxygen: maintain SaO2 94-98% or 88-92%
- fluids
- bed rest
- no smoking


what is mycoplasma pneumonia?

- no cell wall so resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics
- causes protracted paroxysmal cough eg cilial dysfunction
- h2O2 production damages respiratory membranes


what is aspiration pneumoia?

need anaerobic cover


what is legionalla?

- chest symptoms may be minimal
- GI disturbance is common
- confusion common


what is primary influenzal pneumonia?

- seen most during pandemic years
- in young adults
- high mortality


what is secondary bacterial pneumonia?

- common in infants, elderly, debilitated, pre-existing disease and pregnant women
- cause of mortality


what antivirals are used in flu?

- oseltsmivir
- zanamivir


what is chlamydia trachomatis?

- an STI which can cause infantile pneumoina
- diagnosed by CPR on urine of mother or pernasal/ throat swabs of child


what is chlamydophilia pneumoniae?

- person to person
- mostly mild resp infections
- may be picked up by test for psittacosis


what are the main routes of transmission?

- contact
- airborne
- droplets


how to control droplet transmission?

- these are large particles > 5 micron, fall to the floor within 2m
- wash hands, PPE, keep door closed,


what are the gram positive upper respiraotry tract colonisers?

- a-haemolytic streopococci inc strep pneumoinae
- b-haemyolytic streoptococci = strep pyogens
- strapholococcus areus


what are the gram negative upper respiraatory tract coloniers?

- haemoophilus influenzae
- morexella catarrhalis


what are the aspects of acute bronchitis?

clinical = infection and inflammation of the bronchi
- productive cough
- normal chest exam and CXR
- 90% viral - preceded by URT infection, normal chest examination and CXR
antibiotics not usually indicated - other include whooping cough


what is the microbiology of COPD?

- 30% viral alone, 50% bacterial, 20% ?
- Haemophilus influenzae & Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Gram-negatives & others


what are the lung defences?

- normally sterile = no ciliary escalator, alveolar lining fluid, surfacant, Ig complement, FFA, AMP
- alveolar macrophages and neutrophils


what is typical pneumoina caused by? (community)

streptococcus pneumoniae


what is atypical pneumonia caused by? (community)

- mycoplasma pneumoinae, legionella pneumoina, chlamydophila pneumonia, chlamydia psitacci viruses etc


what is hospital acquired pneumonia?

- if you are in hospital for more than 3 days
- including ventilator associated pneumonia