Flashcards in (microbiology) respiratory tract infection Deck (42)
what is strep throat?
- exudate - cells that have seeped out of the blood
- sore throat
- dysphagia - hard to swallow
- dysphonia - hard to speak
- 1-5 days
what is tonsillitis?
- swollen tonsils
- tonsillectomy - rate of mortality because of internal carotid artery
what is quincy?
- complication of tonsillitis
- tonsillar abscess
- can be drained - beware the internal carotid artery
what is epiglottitis?
cant swallow own spit and start drooling
what are the range of lower respiratory tract infections?
- acute bronchitis
- acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis
what is the common cold?
- acute viral infection of the nasal passages
- sore throat
- mild fever
- spread by droplets and formites
- complications: sinusitis, acute bronchitis
- eg adenovirus, rhinovirus (1-5 days) , respiraotry syncytical virus
what is acute sinusitis?
- preceded by a common cold
- purulent nasal discharge
- resolves in 10 days
- treatment is mostly viral aetiology but sometimes antibiotics
what is diphtheria?
- life threatening due to toxin production
- characteristic pseudo-membrane
- 1-10 days
what is acute bronchitis?
- preceded by common cold
- clinical features: productive cough, fever, normal chest exam, normal chest xray, transient (short duration) wheeze
- antibiotics are not indicated
what is acute exacerbation of COPD?
- chronic suptum production, bronchoconstriction, inflammation of the airways
- clinical features: usually preceded by upper resp tract infection, increased sputum production, increased suptum purulence, more wheezy, breathless
- on exam: resp distress, wheeze, coarse crackles, may be cyanosed
how to manage acute exacerbation of COPD?
primary care: antibiotic eg doxycycline, amoxicillin
bronchodilator inhalers, short course of steroids
refer to hospital if evidence of resp failure
in hospital: measure arterial blood gasses, CXR to look for other diseases, give O2
what is the management of community acquired pneumonia?
- antibiotics: amoxicillin, deoxycycline
- oxygen: maintain SaO2 94-98% or 88-92%
- bed rest
- no smoking
what is mycoplasma pneumonia?
- no cell wall so resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics
- causes protracted paroxysmal cough eg cilial dysfunction
- h2O2 production damages respiratory membranes
what is aspiration pneumoia?
need anaerobic cover
what is legionalla?
- chest symptoms may be minimal
- GI disturbance is common
- confusion common
what is primary influenzal pneumonia?
- seen most during pandemic years
- in young adults
- high mortality
what is secondary bacterial pneumonia?
- common in infants, elderly, debilitated, pre-existing disease and pregnant women
- cause of mortality
what antivirals are used in flu?
what is chlamydia trachomatis?
- an STI which can cause infantile pneumoina
- diagnosed by CPR on urine of mother or pernasal/ throat swabs of child
what is chlamydophilia pneumoniae?
- person to person
- mostly mild resp infections
- may be picked up by test for psittacosis
what are the main routes of transmission?
how to control droplet transmission?
- these are large particles > 5 micron, fall to the floor within 2m
- wash hands, PPE, keep door closed,
what are the gram positive upper respiraotry tract colonisers?
- a-haemolytic streopococci inc strep pneumoinae
- b-haemyolytic streoptococci = strep pyogens
- strapholococcus areus
what are the gram negative upper respiraatory tract coloniers?
- haemoophilus influenzae
- morexella catarrhalis
what are the aspects of acute bronchitis?
clinical = infection and inflammation of the bronchi
- productive cough
- normal chest exam and CXR
- 90% viral - preceded by URT infection, normal chest examination and CXR
antibiotics not usually indicated - other include whooping cough
what is the microbiology of COPD?
- 30% viral alone, 50% bacterial, 20% ?
- Haemophilus influenzae & Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Gram-negatives & others
what are the lung defences?
- normally sterile = no ciliary escalator, alveolar lining fluid, surfacant, Ig complement, FFA, AMP
- alveolar macrophages and neutrophils
what is typical pneumoina caused by? (community)
what is atypical pneumonia caused by? (community)
- mycoplasma pneumoinae, legionella pneumoina, chlamydophila pneumonia, chlamydia psitacci viruses etc