CVS Flashcards Preview

PPE > CVS > Flashcards

Flashcards in CVS Deck (52):
1

What are the? 3 class 1 antiarrythmics and how do they affect the AP

1a - lengthens AP
2b - Shortens AP
1c - No effect on AP

2

What is the molecular action of beta blockers

inhibit AC to decrease ionotropy

3

What is the MoA of adenosine?

Resets heart by acting on A1 receptors to decresae AC at AVN and increasing K+ conductance.

4

What is the MoA of organic nitrates?

Dilate coronary artery and venodilate to reduce preload

5

What is the MoA of NO?

Increase GC --> increased cGMP --> decreased calcium

6

Draw out the pacemaker AP

See book.

7

What is the funny current?

Na channel activated by hyperpolarisation

8

Draw out the cardiac AP

see book

9

How does the cerebrum ensure adequate circulation?

High cap density, high flow rate, high o2 extraction rate

10

How is a hypoplastic heart formed?

Pinching shut of endocardial tube

11

How long should the QRS and PR interval take

QRS - 0.12s
PR - 0.12-0.2s

12

Name the acyanotic heart defects

ASD, VSD, PFO, PDA, coarctation of aorta

13

Name the cyanotic heart defects

tetralogy of fallot, tricuspid atresia, transposition of great vessels, hypoplastic left heart

3Ts 1H

14

State the histology of cardiac muscle

Striations, branching, central nuclei, intercalated discs, gap junctions

15

What are after depolarisations caused by?

Increased intracellular calcium

16

Give 3 causes of arrhythmias

Ectopic pacemaker activity, After depolarisations, reentry loops

17

What is the tetralogy of fallot?

VSD, overriding aorta, pulmonary stenosis, RVH

18

What is the right and left AV valves called?

MitraL - left
tricuspid - right

19

Where is the vasa vasorum found?

TA of great vessels

20

What 3 things can cause 1st degree heart block?

Digoxin toxicity, coronary artery disease, electrolyte imbalance

21

What is the result of coarctation of the aorta/

increased pressure --> LVH

22

What receptor and neurotransmitter is responsible for increasing and decreasing HR?

Increase HR - NA on alpha2
Decrease HR - ACh on M2

23

What is cushings reflex?

Increased ICP --> decreased blood flow --> Increased sympathetic action to restore blood flow

24

Where do the baroreceptors transmit their signals to?

medulla oblongata

25

Name the pressures found in the RA, LA, LV, RV, PA, Aorta

RA - 2, RV - 20,
LA - 5, LV - 120,
PA - 20/10, aorta - 120/80

26

How does ischemia lead to vasodilation?

build up of metabolites e.g. H+, co2, adenosine

27

What effect does alpha 1 receptors have?

vasoconstriction

28

What effect does M3 receptors have?

airways and pupil contraction

29

What is the average stroke volume?

80 ml

30

How do you increase the sound of S1 and S2?

S1 - expiration
S2 - inspiration

31

What is the purpose of the fibrous skeleton of the heart?

provides attachments for cusps and electrical insulation

32

When is alpha and beta thalassemia detected?

alpha - before birth
beta - after birth

33

What are the 3 types of arteries?

elastic - aorta and PA. Vasa vasorum
muscular - lots of smooth muscl
arterioles - thin TI

34

What are the layers of the pericardium?

fibrous and serous (parietal and visceral)

35

Draw the arteries and veins of the heart

see book.

36

How would you investigate a coronary artery blockage?

angiogram

37

what is the fossa ovalis?

remnant of FO

38

What are the muscles in the interior of the ventricles and atria called?

ventricles - trabeculae carnae
atria - pectinate

39

What muscles attach to the chordae tendinae? What is their purpose?

papillary - prevents cusps prolapsing

40

What is eisenmenger syndrome?

Left to right shunt --> increased pulmonary pressure --> right to left shunt

41

Explain how smooth muscle contracts

increase in calcium --> activated CaM --> activating MLCK --> phosphorylates mysoin heads

42

Draw out the JVP wave form

see book

43

What nerve innervates the pericardium

phrenic

44

define shock

circulatory failure with generalised lack of oxygen

45

What is cardiogenic shock + give example

failure of heart to pump blood e.g. arrhythmia

46

What is mechanical shock? How would you treat/

cardiac tamponade. 5th intercostal space left sternal edge aspiration or subxiphoid approach

47

How do you treat angina?

nitrate spray, beta blockers, CCB, statins, ACEi, stent

48

What would show on an ECG if someone had a previous MI?

pathological Q waves

49

How do you diagnose angina?

history, stress test on treadmill (look for ST depression)

50

What are the signs of left and right HF

left - tachy, fatigue, S3/S4, oedema
right - fatigue, ascites, increased JVP, anorexia

51

What is S3 caused by? How does it sound? Is it always abnormal?

Can be normal in children and athletes
caused by increased ventricular filling e.g. in HF, mitral regurg, VSD, dilated cardiomyopathy
Sounds like Kentucky

52

What is S4 caused by? How does it sound? Is it always abnormal?

always abnormal
Caused by ventricular stiffness and forceful contraction of atria to overcome this e.g. in LVH, fibrosis of ventricle
Tennessee