TOB Flashcards Preview

PPE > TOB > Flashcards

Flashcards in TOB Deck (41):
1

Describe keratinocyte differentiation

mitosis in basal
lose mitosis in prickle cell
lose Pm and become corneocyte in granular
flattened in horny layer

2

how calcium allows muscle contraction

ca binds to TnC of troponin and moves tropomyosin

3

describe excitation contraction coupling

ACh binds to AChRs on sarcolemma and propagates AP along sarcolemma and down T tubule
AP in tubules triggers Ca release from SR etc.

4

what CTs surround nerves

endoneurium - individual axon
perineurium - fascicle
epineurium - around whol eneve

5

what is endochondral ossification. what bones does it occur in

most bones
cartilage > bone. starts in mid shaft

6

intramembranous ossification and what bones and cells

flat bones
CT > bone
mesenchymal cells --> osteoblasts

7

what post ganglionic symp uses ACh

sweating and ejaculation

8

give order of skeletal muscle units

myofilament > fibril > fibre > fascicle

9

collagen histology

collagen fibres with flat fibroblasts

10

bone repair

inflammation > soft callus (fibrocartilage) > hard callus > remodelling

11

how many days for epithelia in skin and small intestine to renew

skin - 28 days
small intestine - 4-6 days

12

give the types of WBC and their function and appearance

neutrophil - multilobed nucleus
eosinophil - parasites and allergies. bi-lobed with pink granules
basophil - histamine release. bi or tri lobed with blue granules. circulates in blood.
Mast cells - histamine release. bi or tri lobed with blue granules. fixed in tissue. More granules and smaller nucleus than basophil
lymphocyte - big nucleus. B/T/NK cells
monocyte - kidney shaped nucleus

13

where dense regular CT

ligaments and tendons

14

what fibroblasts secrete

collagen. elastic and reticular fibres, ground substance

15

what is nissl substance

RER

16

functions of skin

psychosexual comm, thermoregulation, barrier, sensation

17

tissue types

epithelial, nervous, muscle, connective

18

stomach histology

epithelium, gastric mucosa, MM, SM, muscularis externae, serosa

19

oeseophagus histology

epithelium, LP, MM, SM, musc externa, adventitia

20

bone functions

support, protection, haematopoesis, mineral storage

21

ganglion lengths

symp pre short, post long
ps pre long, post short

22

what cutterage used for

endometrium

23

platelet and rbc cell differentiation needs

platelet - thrombopoeitin
rbc - erythropoietin

24

gland types

simple - tubular, branched tubular, coiled tubular, branched alveolar
compound - tubular, alveolar

25

define gland

epithelial cell specialised for secretion

26

what ground substance contains

water, GAG, proteoglycans, glycoproteins

27

where glycosylation happens

golgi

28

what is fetal skeleton made of

hyaline

29

what is ligament and tendon

ligament - bone to bone
tendon - muscle to bone

30

what type of cartilage in hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic

hyaline and elastic - mostly type 2
fibrocartilage - mostly type 1

31

what surrounds schwann cells

neurolemma

32

what produces platelets

megakaryocytes

33

what also occurs alongside hypertrophy of muscles within the muscle

increased glycolysis, mitochondria, glycogen storage, blood flow

34

what type of CTis blood and adipose

loose

35

what are langerhan cells and where found

APC of skin in prickle cell layer

36

where find elastic, fibrocartilage and hyaline

elastic - auricle and auditory tube
fibrocartilage - IV discs and pubic symph
hyaline - resp airways and joints

37

what used to fix tissues

formaldehyde

38

what used to stain myelin sheaths

osmium tetroxide

39

give features of cardiac muscle

branching, intercalated discs, striations, central nucleus

40

why shrinkage artefacts happen

dehydration + rehydration in slide prerp

41

skeletal muscle histology

peripheral nuclei, multinucleated, striations, tightly packed (no gap junctions)