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Flashcards in HPHD Deck (55):
1

biomedical and biopsychosocial model?

biomedical - biological cause
biopsychosocial - bio + psych + social cause

2

why stereotypes?

info organised in schemata to save processing power. Ppl put into schemata and diversity overlooked. Prone to negative traits

3

what is prejudice and discrimination

prejudice - -ve attitudes based on stereotypes
discrimination - behaviour affected

4

how to avoid stereotypes#?

reflection and knowing people

5

how does ageing affect cognition?

decrease IQ, memory loss, processing speed most affected, crystallised intelligence

6

2 models of ageing?

activity and disengatgement

7

disability medical and social model?

medical - problem is with impairment (loss of physical or psychological structure)
social - problem with social organisation

8

WHAT IS health related behaviour?

anything that +vely or -vely impacts behaviour

9

what is operant conditioning and how to change?

behaviour due to ST rewards. change by rewarding self for not doing

10

what is social learning and how to change?

monkey see, monkey do.
change with celebrities doing shit

11

how manage alcohol acutely and chronically

acutely - fluids, electrolytes, glucose, B1
chronic - disulfiram, B1 (prevent wernickes encephalopathy), valium (treat withdrawal)

12

What is motivational interviewing

avoiding argument, support self efficacy, empathy, develop discrepancy between behaviour and goals

13

what is adherence and compliance?

adherence - patient coincides with med advice
compliance - patient complies with med advice

14

adherence in diseases?

low in chronic, asymptomatic conditions
high in symptomatic conditions

15

how to measure adherence indirectly and directly?

indirect - self/carer report, pill counts
direct - urine/blood sample, direct observation

16

why unintentional and intentional non adherence occurs

unintentional - memory, misunderstand how/when to take drug, limited resources
intentional - BEAM - beliefs, expectations, attitudes, motivation

17

body responses to stress?

increase symp, cortisol, HR. immune system (ST)

18

ST and LT effects of stress?

ST - awareness, sharp, increase thinking and performance
LT - tiredness, anxiety, performance, substance abuse, decrease motivation and immunosuppression

19

tools to measure stress

stressful life events
daily hassles and uplifts

20

what is stress reappraisal

is it easier/harder to cope then i thought#/

21

what factors moderate impact of stress?

control of situation, social support

22

Strategies to manage stress? cognitive, behavioural, emotional, physical, and non cognitive?

cognitive - hypothesis testing, restructuring
behavioural - time management, skills training
emotional - social support, counselling
physical - exercise, meditation
drugs

23

what is emotion focussed coping

change emotions of stress via:
behavioural - talking to friends, drugs
cognitive - change thoughts e.g. denial, + thinking

24

what is problem focussed coping

change problem or resources via:
decrease demands of stressful situation - e.g. find out how to cope
expend resources to deal with it

25

how to help patients deal with stress?

increase social support, pt control, prepare pt for stress, teach stress management

26

NICE guidelines on dealing with depression and anxiety?

low - group CBT and self help
severe - individual CBT and SSRI
anxiety - same but less SSRI

27

limits of biomedical pain model?

phantom pain, no physical dmg but pain,

28

define chronic pain

>3 mths, rest no help, no ongoing tissue damage

29

purpose of pain management programs?

give patient control of pain, increase coping mechanisms and work or fitness and mobility

30

what is psychodynamic therapy, who is it useful for

addresses underlying conflicts from a young age. use with personality problems, interpersonal problems, willing to tolerate mental pain

31

what is family therapies

looks at interactions and meanings

32

techniques of behavioural CBT

RRAG - roleplay, reinforcement and reward, activity scheduling, Graded exposure

33

techniques of cognitive CBT

REEMS - rehearsal coping, Examine -ve thoughts, Education of cognitive model, Monitor thoughts, Schema work

34

what is cbt philosophy

not problem with situation but our view of it

35

what is cbt useful for

depression, anxiety, eating disorder, phobia, ocd, ptsd

36

when can baby recognise strangers and form attachments

strangers - 3 months
attachments - 7-8 months

37

what are the attachement styles?

secure
insecure - avoidant, ambivalent, disorganised

38

3 phases that a hospitalised child goes through. how does this impact child?

phases - protest, despair, detachment
rsults in depression, anxiety, changing behaviour, lacking sleep, increase pain and stress and decreae adherence

39

piagets 4 stages of childhood cognition?

sensorimotor, 0-2 yrs - think by doing
preoperational, 2-7 - egocentric, language and imagination develop
concrete operational, 7-12 - logical, can see others POV
formal operational, 12+ - abstract, hypothetic deductive reasonijng

40

vygotskys theory of social development?

cone of proximal development, learn thorugh shared problem solving

41

how to communicate with children?

use face pain scale, zone of proximity, dont use metaphors, ask parents to explain, smile, be positive

42

how culture can affect health? how would you counteract this

stigmas, making sense of symptoms, may not find treatment acceptable
need more time to explain things to help them adhere

43

3 forms of dying?

gradual, catastrophic, premature

44

5 stages of acceptance of death?

denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

45

chronic grief risk factors?

mentally disabled, depression, sudden death, stress, grief discourages

46

what sexual problems can arise and give examples

desire - lack of
arousal - ED, sexual arousal disorder
orgasm - rapid ejaculation, inhibited orgasm
other - vaginismus, sexual aversion, pregnancy

47

factors leading to sex problems - precipitating, predisposing, self and partner perpetuating

precipitating - physical, psychosocial, life event
predisposing - false beliefs, poor communication, early sex trauma
self perpetuating - loss of confidence, guilt, shame, anger
partner perpetuating - loss in communication, guilt, blaming

48

what is psychosexual therapy

treats couples and facilitates communication, change in attitudes and beliefs

49

what is gender identity

internal perception of gender

50

what is gender role

way person acts in society

51

define transgender and transsexual

transgender - different gender identity to birth sex
transsexual - desire to live life as opposite gender

52

how provide good care for LGBT

illegal to discriminate, challenge -ve views, respect pts, no pejudice

53

why tell pts bad nes

maintain trust, pts ned to know, open communication, allows adjustment, prevent unrealistic expectations

54

blocking behaviours in bad news/

changing subject, focussing on physical aspect, not adressing concerns

55

how to give bad news?

SPIKES
Setting - listen and privacy
Patient perception - What does pt already know?
Invitation - accept refusal to know more
Knowledge - small chunks of info, clear language, check understanding
Empathy
Strategy - summarise, optimism but not reassuring, opp to ask qs, offer to call friend