Flashcards in HPHD Deck (55):
biomedical and biopsychosocial model?
biomedical - biological cause
biopsychosocial - bio + psych + social cause
info organised in schemata to save processing power. Ppl put into schemata and diversity overlooked. Prone to negative traits
what is prejudice and discrimination
prejudice - -ve attitudes based on stereotypes
discrimination - behaviour affected
how to avoid stereotypes#?
reflection and knowing people
how does ageing affect cognition?
decrease IQ, memory loss, processing speed most affected, crystallised intelligence
2 models of ageing?
activity and disengatgement
disability medical and social model?
medical - problem is with impairment (loss of physical or psychological structure)
social - problem with social organisation
WHAT IS health related behaviour?
anything that +vely or -vely impacts behaviour
what is operant conditioning and how to change?
behaviour due to ST rewards. change by rewarding self for not doing
what is social learning and how to change?
monkey see, monkey do.
change with celebrities doing shit
how manage alcohol acutely and chronically
acutely - fluids, electrolytes, glucose, B1
chronic - disulfiram, B1 (prevent wernickes encephalopathy), valium (treat withdrawal)
What is motivational interviewing
avoiding argument, support self efficacy, empathy, develop discrepancy between behaviour and goals
what is adherence and compliance?
adherence - patient coincides with med advice
compliance - patient complies with med advice
adherence in diseases?
low in chronic, asymptomatic conditions
high in symptomatic conditions
how to measure adherence indirectly and directly?
indirect - self/carer report, pill counts
direct - urine/blood sample, direct observation
why unintentional and intentional non adherence occurs
unintentional - memory, misunderstand how/when to take drug, limited resources
intentional - BEAM - beliefs, expectations, attitudes, motivation
body responses to stress?
increase symp, cortisol, HR. immune system (ST)
ST and LT effects of stress?
ST - awareness, sharp, increase thinking and performance
LT - tiredness, anxiety, performance, substance abuse, decrease motivation and immunosuppression
tools to measure stress
stressful life events
daily hassles and uplifts
what is stress reappraisal
is it easier/harder to cope then i thought#/
what factors moderate impact of stress?
control of situation, social support
Strategies to manage stress? cognitive, behavioural, emotional, physical, and non cognitive?
cognitive - hypothesis testing, restructuring
behavioural - time management, skills training
emotional - social support, counselling
physical - exercise, meditation
what is emotion focussed coping
change emotions of stress via:
behavioural - talking to friends, drugs
cognitive - change thoughts e.g. denial, + thinking
what is problem focussed coping
change problem or resources via:
decrease demands of stressful situation - e.g. find out how to cope
expend resources to deal with it
how to help patients deal with stress?
increase social support, pt control, prepare pt for stress, teach stress management
NICE guidelines on dealing with depression and anxiety?
low - group CBT and self help
severe - individual CBT and SSRI
anxiety - same but less SSRI
limits of biomedical pain model?
phantom pain, no physical dmg but pain,
define chronic pain
>3 mths, rest no help, no ongoing tissue damage
purpose of pain management programs?
give patient control of pain, increase coping mechanisms and work or fitness and mobility
what is psychodynamic therapy, who is it useful for
addresses underlying conflicts from a young age. use with personality problems, interpersonal problems, willing to tolerate mental pain
what is family therapies
looks at interactions and meanings
techniques of behavioural CBT
RRAG - roleplay, reinforcement and reward, activity scheduling, Graded exposure
techniques of cognitive CBT
REEMS - rehearsal coping, Examine -ve thoughts, Education of cognitive model, Monitor thoughts, Schema work
what is cbt philosophy
not problem with situation but our view of it
what is cbt useful for
depression, anxiety, eating disorder, phobia, ocd, ptsd
when can baby recognise strangers and form attachments
strangers - 3 months
attachments - 7-8 months
what are the attachement styles?
insecure - avoidant, ambivalent, disorganised
3 phases that a hospitalised child goes through. how does this impact child?
phases - protest, despair, detachment
rsults in depression, anxiety, changing behaviour, lacking sleep, increase pain and stress and decreae adherence
piagets 4 stages of childhood cognition?
sensorimotor, 0-2 yrs - think by doing
preoperational, 2-7 - egocentric, language and imagination develop
concrete operational, 7-12 - logical, can see others POV
formal operational, 12+ - abstract, hypothetic deductive reasonijng
vygotskys theory of social development?
cone of proximal development, learn thorugh shared problem solving
how to communicate with children?
use face pain scale, zone of proximity, dont use metaphors, ask parents to explain, smile, be positive
how culture can affect health? how would you counteract this
stigmas, making sense of symptoms, may not find treatment acceptable
need more time to explain things to help them adhere
3 forms of dying?
gradual, catastrophic, premature
5 stages of acceptance of death?
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
chronic grief risk factors?
mentally disabled, depression, sudden death, stress, grief discourages
what sexual problems can arise and give examples
desire - lack of
arousal - ED, sexual arousal disorder
orgasm - rapid ejaculation, inhibited orgasm
other - vaginismus, sexual aversion, pregnancy
factors leading to sex problems - precipitating, predisposing, self and partner perpetuating
precipitating - physical, psychosocial, life event
predisposing - false beliefs, poor communication, early sex trauma
self perpetuating - loss of confidence, guilt, shame, anger
partner perpetuating - loss in communication, guilt, blaming
what is psychosexual therapy
treats couples and facilitates communication, change in attitudes and beliefs
what is gender identity
internal perception of gender
what is gender role
way person acts in society
define transgender and transsexual
transgender - different gender identity to birth sex
transsexual - desire to live life as opposite gender
how provide good care for LGBT
illegal to discriminate, challenge -ve views, respect pts, no pejudice
why tell pts bad nes
maintain trust, pts ned to know, open communication, allows adjustment, prevent unrealistic expectations
blocking behaviours in bad news/
changing subject, focussing on physical aspect, not adressing concerns