Flashcards in Day 16 Deck (25):
Why is the posterior curve also called the primary curve?
it is the first curve to appear embryologically
What are the adult remnants of the primary curve along the vertebral column?
the thoracic or dorsal curve and the pelvic or sacrococcygeal curve
What are the names given to curves which form during development to reverse the direction of regions along the vertebral column?
anterior curve, secondary curve, compensatory curve
What are the names of the anterior curves, secondary curves, and compensatory curves?
cervical curve and lumbar curve
What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?
1. centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain
2. musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops
3. the head is held upright
4. the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior
At what age will the infant begin to hold the head erect?
usually between the third and forth month after birth
What is the name given to the intergration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?
the righting reflex
What is the location for the apex of the cervical curve?
typically between C4 and C5
What is the location for the cervical kyphosis?
between occiput and C1
What is the time of appearance of the lumbar curve?
between 12 and 18 months after birth
What infant activities are associated with the developmental of the lumbar curve?
crawling and walking
What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?
1. crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward
2. muscles development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars
3. intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior
4. walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development
What is the vertebral relationship between the lumbar curve and the lumbar enlargement?
lumbar curve T12-L5; lumbar enlargement T9-T12
What is the formation of the lateral curve often correlated with?
faster development of the muscles on the side of handedness
What is the time of appearance of the lateral curve?
they appear after 6 years old
What names are given to the conditions associated with abnormal curves of the vertebral column?
lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis
What is the definition of lordosis?
a forward bending condition
What is the definition of kyphosis?
a humpback or hunchback condition
What is the definition of scoliosis?
a warped or crooked condition
What does the use of the term lordotic try to imply?
a normal cervical and normal lumbar anterior curve
What does the use of the term kyphotic try to imply?
A normal thoracic or dorsal and normal pelvic or sacrococcygeal posterior curve
What prefixes are used to convey abnormality in curve patterns?
hyper and hypo
What are the curve classifications for military neck?
a kyphosis or hypolordotic curve
What are the curve classifications for humpback or hunchback?
a kyphosis or hyperkyphotic curve