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Spinal Anatomy Test 1 > Day 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Day 8 Deck (26):
0

What are the ossification centers for atlas?

primary centers for the lateral masses,secondary center for the anterior arch

1

What is the time of closure of the posterior arch synchondrosis?

3-4 years old

2

What is the time of closure of the anterior arch synchondrosis?

6-8 years

3

Which primary center of ossification for axis appears first?

neural arch centers

4

Which is the last primary center of ossification for axis to appear>

base of the dens center

5

What is the name given to the cartilage joint between the base of the dens and centrum centers of ossification?

subdental synchondrosis

6

What is the time of closure of the subdental synchondrosis?

between ages 4-7 years old

7

A persistence of the subdental synchondrosis beyond age 7 is identified as an _______.

os odontoideum

8

What are the locations for secondary centers of ossification in the axis?

inferior epiphyseal plate centers and tip of the dens center

9

At what age will the tip of the dens center of ossification arise?

between 2-6 years old

10

At what age will the tip of the dens synchondrosis be obliterated?

typically before 12 years old

11

A persistence of the tip of the dens synchondrosis beyond age 12 is identified as a ______.

terminal ossicle

12

What additional primary centers of ossification are present in the typical cervicals?

costal element centers

13

The costal element-centrum synchondrosis will ossify by what age?

6 years old

14

What is the location for cervical injuries in (a) children and (b) adults?

children at C2 or above; adults below C2

15

What additional primary centers of ossification are present in the lumbar spine?

costal element centers

16

What additional secondary centers of ossification are present in the lumbar spine?

mammillary process centers

17

What are the primary centers of ossification for sacrum

centrum, neural arch and costal element centers of ossification

18

What are the secondary centers of ossification for sacrum?

tip of the transverse process, epiphyseal plate, tip of the spinous process and costal epiphyseal centers of ossification

19

When will centers of ossification be observed for coccyx?

newer research suggests they are present from birth, not observed in utero

20

Identify all primary centers of ossification for the vertebral column.

centrum, neural arch, costal element, lateral mass, base of the dens

21

Identify all secondary centers of ossification for the vertebra column.

tip of the transverse process, tip of the spinous process, epiphyseal plate, anterior arch, tip of the dens, mammillary process, coccygeal cornu

22

What is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine?

cervical- rectangular; thoracic- triangular; lumbar- reniform

23

What are the names of the openings found around the margins of the vertebral body?

nutrient foramina or vascular foramina

24

What large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body?

the basivertebral venous foramen

25

What is the generic orientation of the pedicle at each region of the spine?

cervical- posterolateral
thoracic- posterior, slight lateral
lumbar- posterior