Flashcards in Day 8 Deck (26)
What are the ossification centers for atlas?
primary centers for the lateral masses,secondary center for the anterior arch
What is the time of closure of the posterior arch synchondrosis?
3-4 years old
What is the time of closure of the anterior arch synchondrosis?
Which primary center of ossification for axis appears first?
neural arch centers
Which is the last primary center of ossification for axis to appear>
base of the dens center
What is the name given to the cartilage joint between the base of the dens and centrum centers of ossification?
What is the time of closure of the subdental synchondrosis?
between ages 4-7 years old
A persistence of the subdental synchondrosis beyond age 7 is identified as an _______.
What are the locations for secondary centers of ossification in the axis?
inferior epiphyseal plate centers and tip of the dens center
At what age will the tip of the dens center of ossification arise?
between 2-6 years old
At what age will the tip of the dens synchondrosis be obliterated?
typically before 12 years old
A persistence of the tip of the dens synchondrosis beyond age 12 is identified as a ______.
What additional primary centers of ossification are present in the typical cervicals?
costal element centers
The costal element-centrum synchondrosis will ossify by what age?
6 years old
What is the location for cervical injuries in (a) children and (b) adults?
children at C2 or above; adults below C2
What additional primary centers of ossification are present in the lumbar spine?
costal element centers
What additional secondary centers of ossification are present in the lumbar spine?
mammillary process centers
What are the primary centers of ossification for sacrum
centrum, neural arch and costal element centers of ossification
What are the secondary centers of ossification for sacrum?
tip of the transverse process, epiphyseal plate, tip of the spinous process and costal epiphyseal centers of ossification
When will centers of ossification be observed for coccyx?
newer research suggests they are present from birth, not observed in utero
Identify all primary centers of ossification for the vertebral column.
centrum, neural arch, costal element, lateral mass, base of the dens
Identify all secondary centers of ossification for the vertebra column.
tip of the transverse process, tip of the spinous process, epiphyseal plate, anterior arch, tip of the dens, mammillary process, coccygeal cornu
What is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine?
cervical- rectangular; thoracic- triangular; lumbar- reniform
What are the names of the openings found around the margins of the vertebral body?
nutrient foramina or vascular foramina
What large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body?
the basivertebral venous foramen