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Flashcards in Endocrine Emergencies Deck (37):
1

Hypothalmus

Junction between the Nervous System and endocrine system

2

ADH

Anti-Diuretic Hormone: causes water retention
The Hypothalmus senses the concentration of salt in body fluids and signals the pituitary gland to secrete ADH which stimulate the renal tubules to reabsorb sodium and water.

3

Major Components of Endocrine system

Hypothalmus
Pituitary Gland
Pineal Gland
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Adrenal
Pancreas
Gonads

4

*Pineal Gland*

Synthesizes and secretes melatonin which has effect on sleep/wake patterns

5

*Pituitary Gland*

"Master Gland" because its secretions orchestrate the activity of other endocrine Glands.
Located at back of brain and is the size of a grape and shape of a nut sack

6

Pituitary Gland Secretions

Growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, melatonin, ADH and Oxytocin

7

*Thyroid Gland*

Secretes thyroxin and calcitonin
Thyroxin: major metabolic hormone, stimulates energy production, increases rate at which cells consume oxygen and use carbs, fats and proteins

8

Thyroid E.g

When body gets cold, increased cellular metabolism creates heat

9

Iodine

Without iodine, thyroxine can't be produced

10

Calcitonin

Increases calcium in body

11

*Thymus Gland*

Component of immune system
Located behind the sternum
Helps immune system identify and destroy foreign substances
Produces T cell and t lymphocytes

12

Killer T Cell

Attacks antigen directly and triggers phagocytosis (eating the cell)

13

Helper T Cell

Releases lymphokines that send information about antigens to the B cells

14

Suppressor T Cells

Contain the immune response so the immune system does not hurt the host

15

*Parathyroid Gland*

Secretes PTH, Parathyroid Hormone, which acts as an antagonist to calcitonin
Secretes when calcium levels in the body are low which stimulates bone-dissolving cells to break down bone and release calcium into the blood stream

16

*Adrenal Glands*

Located on top of the kidneys
Suppress inflammation, govern body's nutrients and regulate how much sodium isnexcreted through urine

17

Adrenal Cortex

Outside of the adrenal gland
Produces corticoids and sex hormones which regulate body's balance of salt and water, the immune system, and sexual function

18

Adrenal Medulla

Insiofmadrenal gland
Produces catecholamines (Epi and norEpi)
Which assist body in coping with physical and emotional stress by increasing the pulse and respiratory rate and blood pressure

19

ACTH

Adrenoorticotropic Hormone: targets adrenal cortex and causes it to secrete cortisol which stimulates the body's cells to increase the body's energy production

20

Aldosterone

When body experiences drop in pressure, volume, sodium level or increase in potassium
Aldosterone stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb sodium from the urine and excrete potassium by altering osmotic gradient in blood
When sodium is absorbed, blood and water follow

21

*Pancreas*

Digestive Gland that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum through pancreatic duct

22

Islet of Langerhans

Secrete glucagon, secreted by alpha cells and insulin, secreted by beta cells

23

*Gonads*

Testes or ovaries main source of sex hormones
Testes secrete testosterone
Ovaries secrete estrogen and progesterone

24

Pituitary Gland Hormones and their effects

Growth Hormone: regulates metabolic growth and adaption to stress

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: increases secretion of thyroid hormone

Adrenocorticosteroid Hormone: stimulates adrenal gland to secrete cortisol and adrenal proteins

Luteizing Hormone: stimulation of gonads

Follicle Stimulating Hormone: sets hormones

Prolactin: milk production

ADH: increases retention of fluid and salts

Oxytocin: contracts uterus during childbirth

25

Diabetes Mellitus

Body's inability to sufficiently metabolize glucose

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Type 1 diabetes

Insulin dependent
Does not produce insulin

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Type 2 diabetes

Which blood glucose levels are elevated

28

Hypoglycemia

Normal ranges from 70-120mg/dL
Hypoglycemia occurs <45mg/dL

29

Hyperglycemia

>160mg/dL

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DKA

Diabetic Ketoacidosis
>300mg/dL

31

Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma

With type 2 diabetes
Hyrglycemia without ketones

32

Addison Disease

Adrenal insufficiency
Caused by atrophy or destruction of adrenal Glands
Assessment: body improperly regulates electrolytes, fluids and water
Management: use corticosteroids and normal saline

33

Cushing Syndrome

Excess of cortisol production by adrenal Glands

34

Hypothyroidism

Slow pulse, decrease metabolism, cold skin, weight gain, weakness, constipated, dry skin

35

Hyperthyroidism

Rapid pulse, increase metabolism, tremor, diarrhea, warm moist skin

36

Graves Disease

Enlarged thyroid gland caused from hypothyroidism
May present with protruding eyeballs or Pretoria myxedema " orange peel " color of below knee

37

Diabetes Insipidus

Polyuria, display, phagia
Body unable to regulate fluids due to lack of ADH