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Flashcards in Environmental Emergencies Deck (71):
1

Body Temp

Tries to maintain at 98.6F

2

CBT core body temperature

Temperature in body consisting of heart, lungs, brain and abdominal viscera

3

Hypothermia starting

95F
Heat Stroke 104F

4

Hypothalmus

Master thermostat in the brain

5

Thermoregulation

Controlled by hypothalmus

6

BMR

Basal Metabolic Rate
Energy produced at rest from normal body metabolic reactions
-Normal is 70Kilocalories per hour

7

Evaporation

Sweat from skin

8

Convection

Air or liquids
-wind chill

9

Conduction

Direct physical contact
-falls into cold lake

10

Radiation

By radiating heat to cold environement via body or ex of ac / heater
-lots lost from the head

11

Thermolysis

Release of stored heat from the body. 4 types

12

Thermogenesis

Production of heat and energy from the body is main method of dealing with cold stressors

13

Heat Illness

Increase in CBT due to inadequate thermolysis

14

Risk Factors from Medications

Diuretics cause dehydration
Beta blockers limits ability to compensate with heart rate for compensation

15

Heat Cramps

Acute involuntary muscle spasms
-occur from profuse wearing and sodium loss
-affect those in good physical condition
-increases serum level of potassium with loss of sodium and develops muscle irritabiliy

16

Heat Cramp Assessment

Hypotension
Nausea
Rapid pulse
Pale and moist skin
Normal temperature normally

17

Management

Move to cool environement
Fluid replenishment
1oz Gateroade to 4oz of water 1:4 ratio

18

Heat Syncope

Orthostatic syncopal episode from prolonged standing or sitting and suddenly standing and cannot compensate with a sudden sympathetic response

19

Heat Exhaustion

Mild form of heat illness of volume depletion and heat stress
Two types: water depleted and salt depleted

20

Exercise associated hyponatremia

Prolonged exertion with excessive fluid intake
Too much water in body in relation to sodium

21

Assessment

Headache
Dizziness
Weakness
Nausea
Vomiting
Cramping

22

Management

Passive Cooling
Fluids
Supine with legs elevated
Oral hydration

23

Heat Stroke

CBT>104F and AMS
PROTEIN CELLS IN BRAIN start tow twist and break down too fast

24

Classic Heatstroke

Very old and young people and come in waves of heat
-Dry red hot skin, no longer sweating, vasodialated

25

Exertion also Heat stroke

Exercising in hot climates
If humidity rises above 75% evaporative cooling is ineffective
-Pale and sweating

26

Cold Wet Packs

Shunts vasculature and brings chemicals to the core causing dysrhythmia and seizures

27

Cold Injury

Localized to injuries

28

Frost Bite

Ischemic injury as superficial or deep depending

29

Frostnip

Mild form of frost bite, feels like a burn, numbness

30

Superficial Frostbite

Altered sensation, numbness, tingling, or burning
-white, waxy and swollen

31

Deep Frostbite

Hands or feet
White, yellow white, black
Causes severe tissue damage and infection

32

Gangrene

Permnanent cell death set in within few days

33

Management

Can keep extremity cold and try and not to reward
-get patient out of cold
-remove wet clothing
-do not rub or message area
-cover with dry sterile dressing
-pain management
-consider rewarding if potential to referees does not exist

34

Trench Foot

Prolonged exposure to wet and cold environments
-wet feet lose heat 25 times faster than dry heat
-keep feet dry and warm

35

Hypothermia

CBT <95F
-increased thermolysis
-decreased thermogenesis

36

Mild Hypothermia

>93.2F
Passive rewarming
-dry
-remove wet clothing
-blankets

37

Alcohol most common for hypothermia

Dialate vessels feeling warm when constriction is suppose to keep warm causing heat loss

38

Moderate Hypothermia

86-93.2 F
Start to see Osborn waves and cardiac changes
External rewarming
-heat blankets
-warm air

39

Severe Hypothermia

<86F
Internal Rewarming
-warm fluids
-humid oxygen
-warm enema
-esophageal rewarming tubes

40

Cardiac

Increase in blood viscosity initially speeds up heart

41

Hypothermia in C

Mild 34-36
Moderate 30-34
Severe <30

42

Drowning

Process of experiencing respiratory inmpairment from submersion or immersion
in liquid

43

Drowning continum

Breath Holding
Laryngospasm
Accumulation of CO2
Inability to oxygenate lungs

44

Daltons Law

Pressure exerted by mixtures of different gases
-same partial pressure

45

Henry's lAw

Amount of gas in liquid is same as above liquid

46

Freshwater

Bacteria and illness from water

47

Saltwater

Salt causes fluid shift in lungs

48

Water

Volume decreases farther go down due to increase in pressure

49

Braotrauma

SQUEEZE
Ascending too quickly to the surface and the lung tissue stretches too much due to decrease of pressure in water compared
-causes pneumo called "pops" which is known as bust lung

50

Diving Injuries

When gas pressure increases, ability to dissolve in Solution increases as well
-volume decreases pressure increases
-every 30 feet the atmospheric pressure increase by 1
-on land force on body is 1 ATPressure

51

Decompression Sickness

Bubbles in vascular space happens from submersion and shift of gas from cells to vascular space

52

Decompression Sickness

Bubbles in vascular space happens from submersion and shift of gas from cells to vascular space
-can cause PE which. Must be treated with hypobaric chamber

53

Nitrogen Narcosis

Excessive amount of nitrogen buildup and starts to experiencing altered mental status

54

Hypobaric Chamber

Puts body under certain pressure to disassociate the air back into the cells

55

Altitude Illness

Less pressure in the air
Usually heights above 8000ft and descends
-gas dissolving diminishes as pressure diminshes
-gas to be transferred in too RBC's diminishes

56

Acute Mountain Illness

Headache plus fatigues, weakness, nausea, vomiting

57

High Altitude Pulmonary Edema

Dyspnea, cough, weakness, chest tightness, wheezing, rales, tachypnea

58

High Altitude Cerebral Edema

Ams, increased ICP

59

Treatment of Altitude

Oxygen 100% and bring down altitude

60

Lightning

Common before and after storm

61

Lichtenburg Figure

Strands of lightning burned into skin

62

Crotalids

Pit vipers, with heat seeking pits
Hemotoxin

63

Elapids

Round pupils
Neurotoxin

64

Neurotoxic

Ams, weakness, nausea

65

Meotoxic

Clots everything up until it gets rid of all clotting factors and then causes freebleeding

66

Manage of Venom

Crofab is antivenom for hemotoxin bites

67

Brown Recluse

Prefer humid controlled dark places and dry

68

Brown Recluse

Prefer humid controlled dark places and dry
More over time and causes necrotic tissue with internal effects

69

Black Widow

Dark Moist and warm environments
Sudden onset, widespread pain

70

Stingray Treatment

Hot fresh or salt water

71

Jell Fish

Salt water because if it is hypotonic then the vehicle lodged will be squeezed released more toxin