Exam 2- PPT1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2- PPT1 Deck (72):
1

What are the other names for the intervertebral motor unit?

Functional motor unit
Physiological motor unit
Vertebral motor unit

2

What is the definition of an intervertebral motor unit?

2 adjacent vertebrae and their contiguous structures

3

Flexion of the vertebrae: ______ the IVF
Flexion of the spine: _______ cervical/lumbar lordosis but _________ the thoracic kyphosis

Opens up the IVF
Decreases; increases

4

Extension of the vertebrae: ______ the IVF
Extension of the spine: ______ Cervical/lumbar lordosis but ________ the thoracic kyphosis

Closes the IVF
Increases Cervical/lumbar lordosis but decreases the thoracic kyphosis

5

What are the 7 functions of the vertebral column

Protection and transmission
Stabilization
Support and weight bearing
Shape and position
Motion
Skeletal formation
Resiliency

6

How does the vertebral column function in protection and transmission

Protects the spinal cord and trasmits nerves to other parts of the body

7

How does the vertebral column function in stabilization

Used for attachment of muscles and ligaments

8

How does the vertebral column funciton in support and weight bearing?

Supports the head and bears the weight of the entire body except the legs

9

How does the vertebral column function in shape and position

Provides erectness and body contours or shape

10

How does the vertebral column function in motion

Allows for flexible movement

11

Inferior border of the scapulae when upright is in line with the tip of spinous ____ and when lying down tip of the spinous ______

T9
T6

12

What is the name of the common fracture that occurs at the tip of spinous of C-7

Clay shoveler’s

13

What is the most common areas of thoracic compression fracture

Body of T-11 or 12

14

What is the most common areas for lumbar compression fracture?

Body of T-12/L1

15

What is the most common area for sacral fracture?

Horizontal fracture at the end of the 3rd or 4th sacral tubercle area

16

In cervical lateral bending: vertebral body moves the ______ direction as the lateral bending. The spinous process moves to the ______ side.

Same direction (ispilateral)

Opposite side (contralateral side)

17

In lumbar lateral bending: the vertebral body moves to the _____ side as lateral bending and the spinous process moves to the _____ side

Opposite side (contralateral)
Same side (Ipsilateral)

18

What is the definition of subluxation?

Loss of proper vertebral joint function that may affect proper nerve function and good health

19

Where does fertilization take place?

Distal 1/3rd of the Fallopian tube

20

It takes _______ (time frame) before it enters the uterus

1 week

21

What implants in the uterus on day 7?

The blastocyst

22

What are the first 2 main structures to begin developing in the embryo?

The spine and nervous system
The heart and vascular system

23

The round egg flattens out and becomes the ________

Germ disc

24

The ectodermal floor of the amniotic cavity thickens and the center of the midline ceases and becomes the ______ ______

Neural streak (neural plate)

25

The neural streak invaginates and becomes the ______ ______

Neural groove

26

What is the beginning of the overall NS?

Neural groove

27

What is the group of cells called that form from mesoderm and will form the cephalic portion of the embryo called?

Primitive node or hensen’s node

28

What marks the longitudinal axis of the embryonic body and will form the guide to further spinal devleopment

Notochord

29

The spine begins to form during the _______ embryonic week

2nd

30

How many pairs of somites are there?

42 to 44

31

What is the group of mesodermal cells that line up on either side of the notochord called?

Somites

32

What do somites eventually become?

Vertebral bodies

33

What si the process of neuralation

Neural plate-> neural groove-> appearance of neural crest-> completion of neural tube-> completion of neural crest

34

The somites form as follows:
1st 4 pair will become the _______
7 pair will become the _______
12 pair will become the ______
5 pair will become the ______
5 pair will become the ______
8 to 9 pair will become the ______

The somites form as follows:
1st 4 pair will become the occiput
7 pair will become the cervical vertebra
12 pair will become the thoracic vertebra
5 pair will become the lumbar vertebra
5 pair will become the sacral segments
8 to 9 pair will become the coccygeal segments

35

What happens to any remaining somites?

Any remaining pairs will disappear or become absorbed

36

What do the neural crest cells develop into?

**** KNOW FOR EXAM

The posterior dorsal root ganglion and spinal nerves

37

During the third embryonic week the somites will split in their center at an area called the __________________

Fissure of Von Ebner

38

What forms a sclerotome?

The union of 2 different somites

39

The rest of the connective tissue is called _______

Mesenchyme

40

How does the vertebrae form?

By fusion of sclerotome cells from two different somite levels

41

During the 4th embryonic week the sclerotomes begin to change into what?

Cartilage

42

The notochord will bunch up between the cartilage and will become part of the _______ _________ of the intervertebral disc

Nucleus pulposis

43

What are the 3 stages of vertebral development?

Mesenchymal stage
Chondrification stage
Ossification stage

44

What happens during the mesenchymal stage/ primordial stage of vertebral development?

Somites form and sclerotomes develop
Lasts from 2nd to 3rd embryonic week

45

What does the chondrification stage consist of?

Begins overall in the cervicothoracic region then proceeds upwards and downward

Begins in 4 areas of the vertebrae

46

Ossification of the vertebral BODIES begins at the ________ areas of the spine and proceeds upward and downward

Thoracolumbar

47

Ossification of the vertebral ARCHES begins at the _______ regions of the spine and proceeds upward and downward

Cervicothoracic

48

________ ossification begins prior to birth but may not be complete till after birth

________ ossification begins after birth. Most take place between the ages of 12 and 20

Primary
Secondary

49

Most secondary ossification takes place when?

Between the ages of 12 and 20

50

In the atlas (C1), what are the 3 primary centers of ossification?

1 in each lateral mass (2)
1 in the anterior arch

51

Axis, Epistropheus, C-2: has _____ primary centers and ______ secondary centers of ossification for a total of _______

5 primary
2 secondary
Total of 7

52

What is the term used for any failure of fusion of an ossification center, either primary or secondary?

Persistant epiphysis

53

What is a failure of fusion of the primary center of ossification in which the odontoid process fails to fuse with the body of the axis?

Os Odontoidium

54

What is a failure of the secondary ossification center of ossification in which the tip (apex) of the odontoid process fails to fuse with the rest of the odontoid process.

Os Terminale

55

How many ossification centers are there for C3-T12?
Total? Primary? Secondary?

Total- 8
Primary- 3
Secondary- 5

56

For C-3 through t-12:
1 secondary ossification center in each epiphyseal plate fuses between ages of ______ and _____

16 and 20

57

In C-3 to T-12:
1 secondary center of ossification in the tip of each TVP fuses about the age of _____

16

58

For C3 to T-12:
1 secondary center of ossification in the tip of the SP fuses about the age of _____

16

59

How many ossification centers are there for the lumbar spine? Total, primary, and secondary?

10 total, 5 primary and 5 secondary

60

Lumbar spine, 5 primary centers:
1 in the center of the __________
1 in each half of the __________
1 in each _________

5 primary centers:
1 in the center of the vertebral body
1 in each half of the vertebral arch
1 in each mamillary process (2)
- posterior superior lateral aspect of the Superior AP

61

Lumbar spine, 5 secondary ossification centers:
1 in each ________
1 in each ______
1 in the ______________

Lumbar spine, 5 secondary ossification centers:
1 in each epiphyseal plate
1 in each TVP
1 in the tip of the spinous process

62

How many centers of ossification are there for the sacrum? Total, primary, secondary

49 total, 37 are primary, 12 are secondary

63

Fusion of S1,2,4 occurs between the ages of _____ and ____

9 and 11

64

Fusion of S-4 and 5 is between the ages of _____ and ______

18 and 20

65

How many centers of ossification for the coccyx? Total, primary, secondary?

4 total centers, all primary

66

Coccyx:
Each primary center will enlarge and develop 1 every five years and all will be fused between the ages of _____ and _____

25 and 30

67

At five weeks the upper and lower limbs have formed as what?

Fin like appendages pointing lateral and caudally

68

At 6 weeks what do the limbs look like?

Limbs bend anteriorly, so elbows and knees point laterally, palms and soles face trunk

69

At 7 weeks,, upper and lower limbs have undergone _________ about their long axes but in opposite directions so elbows point _____ and knees point ______

90 degree torsion
Caudally
Cranially

70

At 8 weeks what does torsion of the lower limbs result in?

Twisted or barber pole arrangement of their cutaneous innervation

71

In the axis (Epistropheus, C-2), primary centers of ossification:
1 in each half of the _________
1 in the center of the ________
2 at the base of the _______

1 in each half of the vertebral arch
1 in the center of the vertebral body
2 at the base of the odontoid process

72

Axis (Epistropheus, C-2), secondary centers of ossification
Begins about the age of _____ and completed by age ____
1 located in the __________
1 located at the _______

Begins about the age of 2 and completed by age 12
1 located in the apex of the odontoid process
1 located at the anterior inferior lip