Exam 2 - Regions in Spinal Column Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > Exam 2 - Regions in Spinal Column > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 - Regions in Spinal Column Deck (241):
1

What are the 3 regions of the occiput?

Squamous portion
Lateral/condylar (2)
Basilar portion

2

Posterior part and most of the base of the cranium is formed by what

Occipital bone

3

What pass through foramen magnum?

Medulla oblongata
Vertebral arteries
Spinal arteries

4

Where the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory cranial nerve exit the skull

Jugular foramen

5

The portion that connects to the sphenoid bone and is an area for attachment of many ligaments and muscles

Basilar portion

6

First _____ of flexion/extension of head and neck takes place here before any other vertebra move

50%

7

What are the 4 nuchal lines?

Median
Inferior
Superior
Highest

8

The largest part of the occiput that is posterior to the foramen magnum

Squamous portion

9

A typical cervical vertebra has _______ shaped bodies

Rectangular/oval

10

A typical cervical vertebra has _______ SP

Bifid

11

How many cervical lips does a typical cervical vertebra have?

3 - 2 superior lateral & 1 anterior inferior lip

12

in the typical cervical vertebra, the TP are _______ to the AP

Anterior

13

__________ ________ are ascension of the vertebral artery

Transverse foramen

14

What is a Costco-transverse lamella?

Groove on superior surface of the TVP for exit of the spinal nerve - typical cervical vertebra

15

A typical cervical vertebra has a ________ neural foramen

Triangular

16

Which cervical are typical

3,4,5,6

17

Peculiar cervical vertebra are..

1,2,7

18

What is the purpose of the uncinate processes?

Prevent lateral slipping of vertebra above

19

When does the uncinate process develop?

Between 9 and 10

20

A typical cervical has ___ true articulations and ___ pseudo ones

6
2

21

Bony elevations on the superior lateral margins of the cervical vertebrae are called what?

Uncinate processes

22

Uncinate processes articulate with the inferior lateral aspect of the vertebra above to form what?

Uncovertebral joint
AKA
Joints of Luschka
AKA
Luschkal Joint

23

What is the defining characteristics of the atlas

Lacks a body, pedicles, Laminae, spinous
Has anterior arch, posterior arch, and lateral masses, and TVPs

24

What is developed from the hypochondral arch that typically unites both halves of vertebral bodies

Anterior Arch

25

Primary center of ossification for the atlas

Anterior arch

26

Anterior arch fuses to lateral masses when?

Between 6 and 8

27

Most anterior part of the atlas

Anterior tubercle

28

Groove for articulation of dens on the anterior tubercle that forms a pivotal joint for rotation of C1 and C2

Fovea Dentalis

29

50% of rotation of the head and neck takes place in the ______ before any other vertebra moves

Anterior tubercle of anterior arch of C1

30

Entrance of vertebral artery and exit for 1st pair of spinal nerves

Superior Vertebral Notch (Sulcus Arteriae Vertebralis)

31

Exit of 2nd pair of spinal nerves

Inferior vertebral notch

32

Anterior inferior surface of posterior arch

Inferior vertebral notch

33

Lateral masses of C-1 have _____ and _____ facets

Superior
Inferior

34

Superior facet of C1 faces...

Superior and medial

35

Inferior facet of C1 faces...

Flat and inferior

36

Where are the longest TVP in the cervical spine?

C1

37

Causes of ADI abnormality

Trauma
Down’s Syndrome
Inflammatory Arthritis

38

C2 AKA

Axis
Epistropheus

39

Distinguishing characteristics of C2

Odontoid Process (dens)
No superior lateral lips

40

What are the 5 articulations of C1?

2 with occiput
3 with C2

41

Atlas-Dens Interval should be....

Less than 5mm in children
Less than 3mm in adults

42

Which cervical has the shortest TVP

C2

43

Which cervical has the largest SP?

C2

44

What are the articulations of C2?

3 with atlas
3 with C3

45

What are the two ligaments of C2

Alar ligament
Apical dental ligament

46

Which cervical is the first palpable spinous below the EOP?

C2

47

2 or more motions occurring at the same time

Coupling motion

48

Spinous process will move to ______ side when cervical spine is laterally flexed

Opposite

49

The vertebral body will move to the _______ side when the cervical spine is laterally flexed

Same

50

The spinous process will move to the _______ side when the lumbar spine is laterally flexed

Same

51

The vertebral body will move to the ______ side when the lumbar spine is laterally flexed

Opposite

52

The coupling motion of the cervical spine occurs where?

From cervical spine to T6,7,8

53

The first artery off the subclavian artery

Vertebral artery

54

Which artery supplies the posterior 1/3 of the bran?

Vertebral artery

55

Which arteries supply the anterior 2/3 of the brain?

Carotid arteries

56

Which artery comes off the aorta?

Subclavian artery

57

The vertebral artery ascends through the tansversarii of the first ____ vertebrae

6

58

What does it mean that the vertebral artery is fixed to adjacent structures?

It cannot slide inside the transverse foramen and will elongate then the cervical spine is rotated

59

The vertebral artery will elongate when the cervical spine is bent at what degree?

30-45%

60

Part 1 of the vertebral artery

Subclavian artery through TVP of C6

61

Part 2 of the vertebral artery

From C6 through C2

62

Part 3 of vertebral artery

C2 to C1
Moves laterally and passes through TVP of C1
Turns medially and goes through sulcus arterii vertebrialis

63

Part 4 of vertebral artery

Through posterior Atlanta-occipital ligament, into spinal canal then joins with fellow on opposite side to form the basilar artery

64

Last and largest branch of vertebral artery

PICA
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

65

Basilar artery travels upward and branched into a right and left ___________

Posterior cerebral artery

66

The posterior cerebral artery branches and forms the _______________

Posterior communicating artery

67

The anterior cerebral artery unites with the _______

Anterior communicating artery

68

Where is the circles of Willis?

under the brain

69

What does the circle of Willis supply?

The base of the brain

70

Most common area of stroked or vascular accidents?

Circle of Willis

71

2 divisions of strokes

Ischemic
Hemorrhagic

72

Blood supple to a portion of the brain is blocked

Ischemic

73

Loss of blood flow due to bleeding

Hemorrhagic

74

90% of strokes are...

Ischemic

75

The type of stroke that is associated with manipulation

Ischemic

76

Least mobile region of the spine

Thoracic

77

Basic movement in the thoracic spine is _______

Rotation

78

There is some _______ but no _______ in the thoracic spine

Flexion
Extension

79

Typical thoracic vertebrae:

T2-8

80

Most of the thoracic vertebrae have an _______ shaped neural foramen

Oval

81

TVP of thoracic vertebrae are oriented...

45 degrees posterolateral

82

12 articulations of typical thoracic vertebra

4: Articular processes
4: Demi-facets on bodies with head of ribs
2: ribs at TVP
2: vertebral body above and below via disc

83

Which is the longest thoracic spinous?

T4

84

Which is the shortest thoracic spinous

T11

85

Which thoracic vertebra are peculiar

T1, T9, T10, T11, T12

86

T1 characteristics

2nd transitional spinal segment
Body more rectangular
Rudimentary uncinate processes

87

T1 Characteristics

1 pair full costal facets superior
1 Park demifacets inferior
12 articulations

88

T9 characteristics

1 pair demi-facets on superior
No inferior demi-facets
10 articulations

89

T10 characteristics

Only 1 pair of full costal facets-superior
NO costal facets on inferior
10 articulations

90

T11 characteristics

NO fovea costalis transversalis on TVP
1 pair full facets
8 articulations

91

T12 characteristics

No fovea costalis transversalis on TVP
1 pair full facets on body
3rd transitional segment in spine
Mammillary processes, accessory processes, 1 pair of interlocking articular process on inferior

92

Pectus carinatum

Sternum sticks outward

93

Ribs too short to bend backward so pushes sternum outward

Pectus carinatum

94

Pectus excavatum

Sternum is depressed inward

95

Ribs are too long and push sternum more inward

Pectus excavatum

96

Typical lumbar vertebra

L1-4

97

Typical lumbar vertebra bodies are ______ shaped

Kidney

98

SP of typical lumbar are..

Club-like

99

TVP of typical lumbar vertebra are ____ and _________

Thin
Blade like

100

TVPs of typical lumbar vertebra are _______ to articular process but _______ to IVF

Anterior
Posterior

101

Mammillary process of typical lumbar are on the _______ _________ ________ aspect of superior articular process

Posterior
Superior
Lateral

102

SAP of typical lumbar are convex or concave?

Concave

103

SAP of typical lumbar are located on inside or outside?

Outside

104

IAP of typical lumbar are convex or concave?

Convex

105

IAP of typical lumbar are on inside or outside?

Inside

106

Laminae of typical lumbar is _____ and _____

Broad
Short

107

Shape of neural foramen is _______ on typical lumbar vertebra

Triangular

108

Pedicles of typical lumbar have _______ inferior pedicle notch

Deep

109

Pedicles of typical lumbar vertebra have a ______ superior pedicle notch

Shallow

110

body of typical lumbars show a progressive _____ in mass

Increase

111

Pedicles of typical lumbar are ______ and ______ than thoracic

Longer
Wider

112

TVP of lumbar are _____ than in thoracic region

Smaller

113

SP of lumbar vertebra are _______ shaped

Square

114

Which lumbar is peculiar?

L5

115

L5 has a _______ shaped body

Wedge

116

SP of L5 tips _______

Upward

117

TVP of L5 arises from the _______ and not the lamina/pedicle junction

Body

118

4th transitional segment of the spine

L5

119

Flexion of lumbar spine only

60 degrees

120

Flexion of lumbar spine with aid of pelvis

105 degrees

121

Extension of the lumbars:

25 degrees

122

The first 15 degrees of lumbar extension are from the ______

Pelvis

123

Last 10 degrees of extension of the lumbar spine are from

Lumbar spine alone

124

Degree of lateral flexion in the lumbars:

25 degrees

125

Degree of rotation in the lumbars:

45 degrees

126

A break in the pars interarticularis without anterior slippage

Spondylolysis

127

Break in the pars interarticularis with anterior slippage

Spondylolisthesis

128

Anterolisthesis

Anterior slippage

129

Retrolisthesis

Posterior slippage

130

Spondylos 70-75% of the time occurs as ______ slips anterior on ______

L5
S1

131

25% of spondylos occur as _____ slips anterior on _____

L4
L5

132

Generally accepted cause of spondylolysis

Repeated strains
-damage lower spine over time, usually at L5

133

Stress fractures are associated with spondylo.....

Spondylolysis

134

What are the 5 types of spondylolisthesis?

Isthmic
Degenerative
Traumatic
Pathological
Dysplastic

135

Most common type of spondylolisthesis

Isthmic

136

Type of spondylolisthesis that causes fatigue or stress fracture of the pars of L5

Isthmic

137

Where can you find a Scotty Dog?

Oblique x-ray

138

Primarily posterior joint degeneration is what type of spondylolisthesis

Degenerative

139

Most common form of spondylolisthesis below the age of 50

Isthmic

140

Most common form of spondylolisthesis above the age of 50

Degenerative

141

No fracture or pars defect, this is caused by time (type of spondylolisthesis)

Degenerative

142

L5 slips on S1

Isthmic spondylolisthesis

143

L4 slips on L5

Degenerative

144

Most common spondylolisthesis in female over 40

Degenerative

145

Acute fracture anywhere in the posterior arch except at the pars interarticularis

Traumatic spondylolisthesis

146

Found secondary to pathology (type of spondylolisthesis)

Pathological

147

Rare congenital malformation in with L5 may not have inferior articular processes to articulate with S1 (causes anterior slide)

Dysplastic spondylolisthesis

148

Spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis are both _________ conditions

Acquired

149

Incidents of spondylolisthesis _________ with age

Increase

150

Congenital spondylolisthesis AKA

Dysplastic

151

Spondylolysis means what?

Breaking the vertebrae

152

95% of spondylolysis occur at which vertebrae?

L5

153

Spindylolysis are generally ________ in nature (bilateral or unilateral)

Bilateral

154

Isthmic spondylolisthesis is most often found between the ages of _____ and _____ in athletes

9
13

155

The majority of spondylos occur asymptomatically by the age of _____ and become symptomatic by age _____

12
13

156

As many as ____% of young athletes with lumbar pain for over 3 months have either spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis

50

157

Signs and symptoms of spondylolisthesis

1. Low back pain (chronic)
2. Tight hamstrings (hyperlordosis)
3. Loss of flexibility

158

Typical x-ray views for the lumbar spine

A-P lumbar
Lateral lumbar (not often)

159

if you suspect a spondylo, what type of x-ray view do you want?

A-P lumbar
Lateral lumbar
& obliques

160

2 ways to measure (or grade) the amount or degree of slippage using lateral lumbar x-ray

Ullman’s Line
Meyerding classification

161

Type of classification that uses posterior aspect of the vertebral bodies to measure slippage

Meyerding classification

162

Grade 1 meyerding classification

0-25%

163

Grade 2 Meyerding classification

25-50%

164

Grade 3 Meyerding classification

50-75%

165

Grade 4 Meyerding classification

75-100%

166

Grade 5 Meyerding classification

Vertebra has slipped totally off the segment below and anterior

Called spondyloptosis

167

75% of flexion of the lumbar spine is at ________

L5/S1

168

Least segmental motion in the lumbar spine is _______

Rotation

169

Greatest amount of overall motion in the lumbar spine is at _______

L4-5

170

Greatest amount of lateral bending in the lumbar spine occurs at _____

L3-4

171

Least amount of lateral bending in the lumbar spine is ______

L5/S1

172

What is the most common anomaly of the spine?

Trophies

173

“Last lumbar assumes the characteristics of the sacrum” what does this describe?

Sacralization

174

“1st sacral segment assumes characteristics of the lumbar” what does this describe?

Lumbarization

175

What are the 3 types of Baastrup’s disease?

Trophism
Sacralization
Lumbarization

176

51% of disc herniation occur at ______

L4/5

177

49% of disc herniation occur at _______

L5/S1

178

More mobility = ________ stability

Less

179

Elongated spinous process of L5 (with lordosis) and a spina bifida at S1 is referred to as what?

Knife clasp syndrome

180

In ________, joints are faced different and only move with great stress.

Tropism

181

A pathological stimulation of new bone formation at the attachments of the longitudinal ligaments

Spondylosis

182

What are the 2 types of spondylosis?

Syndesmophyte
Spondylophyte

183

Vertical spurs - calcification of the longitudinal ligaments
What type of spondylosis does this describe

Spondesmophyte

184

Horizontal spurs off the vertebra - may end up with fusion
What type of spondylosis does this describe?

Spondylophyte

185

What is a spur found on the bone called?

Osteophyte

186

What are the 3 types of fusion?

Arthrodesis
Ankylosis
Synostosis

187

Surgical fusion

Arthrodesis

188

Pathological fusion

Ankylosis

189

Congenital fusion

Synostosis

190

Base of the sacrum is body of ______

S1

191

Sacral Alae AKA

Lateral sacral masses

192

Superior articular process of the sacrum articulates with what?

Last lumbar segment

193

Facets in the sacrum face more ______ than ______

Coronally than sagittally

194

Women sacrum is _______(short or tall), _______ (thin or wide), and _______ curved

Shorter
Wider
More curved

195

Sacral vertebrae connects the spine to the pelvic girdle at the _______________

Sacroiliac joint

196

Sacral promontory is on the _____ surface of the sacrum

Anterior

197

How many pair of anterior pelvis sacral foramen are there?

4

198

What is the articular surface on the lateral surface of the sacrum?

SI joint

199

Lateral sacral crest is analogous to _____

TVP

200

The only normally occurring spina bifida in vertebral column is what?

Sacral hiatus

201

What is the last pair of articular processes?

Sacral cornua

202

Male sacrum is more _____ than the females (narrow or wide)

Narrow

203

Male sacrum is ________ than females (short or long)

Longer

204

Male sacrum is oriented more ________

Vertically

205

Female sacrum is oriented more _________

Horizontally

206

Male lumbosacral angle is _________

Decreased

207

Female lumbosacral angle _________

Increased

208

Female anterior surface of the sacrum is more or less curved

More

209

What is a females Q-angle?

18 degrees

210

What is a males Q-angle?

13 degrees

211

Coccyx is formed by ___ segments fused together

4

212

Each segment of the coccyx develop as what?

Primary center of ossification

213

Coccyx will develop every ____ to ____ years

1-5

214

Segments of the coccyx are completely fused between ages _____ and ____

25 - 30

215

Normal lumbar spine is about _____ degrees from sacrum

37

216

Nerve supply for SI joint is from

SI and S2 segments

217

Sacroiliac joint moves about _____ degrees

2

218

Articular capsule on anterior surface of sacrum

Sacroiliac joint

219

What 5 typed of joints are in the pelvic ring?

Syphysis pubis (1)
SI joints (2)
Coxal joint (2)
Anterior LS joint (1)
Lumbosacral zagapophyseal joints (2)

220

Total number of joints in the pelvic ring?

8

221

Pelvic girdle is more flexible in _____

Females

222

Forward movement of the sacral base with relationship to the ilium

Nutation

223

Sacral base moves posterior in relation to the ilium

Counter nutation

224

When the ilium comes tougher is posterior and widens in front, what type of motion is it?

Nutation

225

When the ilium opens in the back and comes together in the front, what type of motion is it?

Counter nutation

226

What three types of movement are associated with the SI joint

Rotatory
Nutation
Counter nutation

227

By the _____ generation of life, degeneration begins and mobility decreases

4th

228

By the _____ decade, total fibrous degeneration occurs and movement is changed

8th

229

_______ are more susceptible to SI joint issues than ______

Females
Males

230

3 joints of uncinate processes

Joints of Von Luschka
Unco-vertebral joint
Co-vertebral joint

231

False or pseudo joint is called

Joint of Von Luschka
AKA
Luschka Joint

232

Transverse ridges of the sacrum are analogous to ______

Discs

233

Sacrospinous ligament seperates _______________ and _____________

Greater sciatic notch and foramen
Lesser sciatic notch and foramen

234

Who has larger lordosis, males or females?

Females

235

Atlas can move _______ left or right just from the C1/C2

40-45

236

2/5th the body ring is part of the ______ arch of C1

Posterior

237

Most posterior part of C1
Is analogous to SP

Posterior tubercle

238

Entrance of vertebral artery and exit of 1st pair spinal nerves through

Sulcus arteriae vertebraialis

239

Ponticus posticus AKA

Posterior Atlanto-occipital ligament

240

Calcification of the sulcus arteriae vertebrialis

Ponticus posticus

241

Exit of 2nd pair of spinal nerves

Inferior vertebral notch