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Spinal Anatomy > Exam III > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam III Deck (148):
1

Blood supply to individual vertebra is typically _______.

Segmental

2

Once inside the intervertebral foramen, the vertebral artery splits into these three branches:

Anterior Branch (Prelaminar)
Posterior Branch (Postcentral)
Neural branch (neurospinal)

3

What does the anterior branch supply blood to?

The posterior aspect of the vertebral bodies, and anterior aspect of the spinal cord and anterior ligaments inside the spinal canal

4

What does the posterior branch supply blood to?

The posterior arch, posterior part of the spinal cord and ligaments in the posterior spinal canal

5

What does the neural branch supply blood to?

The lateral aspects of the spinal cord, spinal nerve and nerve roots

6

The 3 main arteries that go from the head/neck downward to supply the main portion of the spinal cord:

2 Posterior spinal arteries
1 Anterior spinal artery

7

The 2 posterior arteries and 1 anterior spinal artery come off of the _______ arteries just before they unite to form the _______ artery

vertebral
basilar

8

The anterior spinal artery comes from both _____ arteries, unites in front of the _____ ____, and runs caudally through the ______ _____ ____ of the cord.

vertebral
spinal cord
ventral median fissure

9

A branch off the anterior spinal artery, found between T-9 and T-12

Great Radicular Artery of Adamkiewicz

10

What does the great radicular artery of adamkiewicz supply blood to?

The inferior thoracic vertebrae, superior lumbar vertebrae, lumbarsacral enlargement of the spinal cord

11

Anterior spinal artery also supplies blood to:

The lumbar segmental arteries, lateral sacral artery, and blood of the sacrum and coccyx

12

The posterior spinal artery arises from the ______ ____, adjacent to the ______ ______. It supplies the ______ and ______ posterior columns of the spinal cord.

vertebral artery
medulla oblongata
grey
white

13

The two major venous plexus (group of veins) that leave the vertebra:

Internal venous plexus
External venous plexus

14

Where is the internal venous plexus located?

The inside of the spinal canal

15

Where is the external venous plexus located?

Outside the vertebral column

16

The internal venous plexua is also called the (2 different names)

Epidural venous plexus or the Batson's Plexus

17

Both the internal and external venous plexus have an _____ and a _______ part

anterior
posterior

18

Vein inside the vertebral body. Part of the anterior internal venous plexus

Basivertebral Vein

19

The opening in the basivertebral vein inside the vertebral body is called:

Hanh's venous Cleft

20

3 Classes/types of joints within the spinal column

Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

21

Type of joint where 2 bones are connected by connective tissue of hyaline cartilage, with a lack of motion

Fibrous joints

22

Type of joint formed when 2 bony surfaces are united by cartilage or a disc. Many SLIGHT motions

Cartilaginous joint

23

Type of joint with an articular surface covered with articular cartilage, and connected by ligaments lined by a synovial membrane.

Synovial

24

What type of joint is most common in the spine and body?

Synovial joints

25

Subclassification of the fibrous joints in the spine is called the ________ ______. Formed when 2 bones are united by an ___________ _______.

Sydesmodial joint
Interosseous ligaments

26

2 subclassifications of cartilaginous joints

Synchondrosis
Symphysis

27

Subclassification of cartilaginous joints. A temporary joint where the cartilage later changes into bone itself (Ex- epiphisial plates)

Synchondrosis

28

Subclassification of cartilaginous joints: 1 bony surfaces connected by a disc or fibrocartilage. (Ex- Pubic symphasis)

Symphysis

29

3 subclassifications of synovial joints

Trochoid/Pivot Joints
Condyloid Joints
Arthrodial/Gliding/Articulatio Plana joints

30

Subclassification synovial joint. Allows for gliding motion. (Ex- facet joints)

Arthrodial/Gliding/articulatio plana joints

31

Subclassification of synovial joint. Allows for rotation. Uniaxial motion. (Ex- C1-C2)

Trochoid/Pivot joints

32

Subclassification of synovial joints. Allows for flextion and extension. All motions except for axial rotation (Ex- C1-Occiput)

Condyloid joints

33

Common articulations between C-2 and S-1, between the vertebral bodies

Cartilaginous symphysis

34

Common articulations between C-2 and S-1, between zagapophyseal joints

Synovial arthrodial, gliding, articulation plan

35

Atlanto-occipital articulations

Synovial——-condyloid

36

Articulations of atlanto-axial

Synovial——arthrodial
Synovial——trochoid

37

Intersacral articulations

Cartilaginous—synchondrosis

38

Sacro-coccygeal articulations

Cartilaginous symphysis (fibrocartilage)

Fibrous—-syndesmodial

39

Intercoccygeal articulations

Cartilaginous—-synchondrosis

40

Common cardinal ligaments of the spine have ____ blood supply, and _____ stretch

Some

Prevent

41

Group 1 of the common cardinal ligaments attach to:

The vertebral bodies

42

Group 2 of the common cardinal ligaments attach to:

The spinous processes

43

Group 3 of the common cardinal ligaments attach to:

Lamina, articulations processes, and transverse processes

44

Common/cardinal ligaments changes name at ____ to _______ ______ _______

C2

Anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL)

45

Anterior longitudinal ligament covers the _____ surface of vertebral _____ and ______ from ____ to _____. The attachment is _____(weak/strong)

Anterior

Bodies and
Disc

C-2 to
Sacrum

Strong

46

3 layers of anterior longitudinal ligament:

Deep, middle, and superficial

47

Where is the anterior Longitudinal ligament most narrow? Widest?

Most narrow in cervical, widest in lumbar

48

What this the function of the anterior longitudinal ligament?

To limit extension of the spine.

49

The anterior longitudinal ligament attaches to each vertebral body _____ and ______ at the levels of the ____ ____

Superiorly and inferiorly

End plates

50

What is the anterior longitudinal ligament continuous with?

Anterior Atlanto-occipital membrane

51

Ligament working opposite to anterior longitudinal ligament

Posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL)

52

Posterior longitudinal ligament is the most ______ (anterior/posterior) ligament in the spinal canal.

Anterior

53

Where is the posterior longitudinal ligament widest? Most narrow?

Widest in cervical and over discs,
Most narrow in lumbar and over vertebral bodies

54

Posterior longitudinal ligament is ______ attached to the center of vertebral bodies. This is due to the ______ ____.

Loosely

Basivertebral vein

55

What is the function of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

Limits flexion of the vertebral bodies.

56

The anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments are also called the _________ ligaments

Intercentral ligaments

57

Between ALL and PLL, which ligament is weaker?

PLL

58

What is the PLL continuous to?

Tectoral membrane (inferior)

59

Why are the intervertebral discs called ligaments?

They separate vertebral bodies and hold the bodies together.

60

How many total discs?

23- none between occiput and C-1 or C-1-2

61

What ligament is continuous from the tip of the spinous process of C-7 though S-1? Has 3 layers

Supraspinous ligament

62

What ligament is formed by the superior extension of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments? Attaches to SP of all cervical vertebrae. Broad, triangular in shape

Ligamentum nuchae

63

The supraspinous ligament is a very _______ (weak/strong) band connecting the tips of contiguous spinous processes.

Weak

64

Where does the ligamentum nuchae run?

between occiput and C7 SP

65

Combination of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments come together in the _______ spine.

Cervical

66

A series of ligaments that run between the SP of each motor unit. From C2/3 to L5/S1. Poorly developed in cervical spine

Interspinous Ligament (ISL)

67

Where does the ISL attach to? Anteriorly and posteriorly

Anteriorly to ligamentum flavum
Posterior to supraspinous ligament

68

The ISL connects:

Spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae

69

In the cervical spine, the ISL becomes part of the _______ _____.

Ligamentum nuchae

70

Where does the supraspinous ligament run?

Between the tips of the adjacent spines

71

Which ligament runs between adjacent TVP?

Intertransverse

72

Which ligament connects the lamina of adjacent vertebrae? Extends to the facet joint capsule.

Ligamentum Flavum

73

Which ligament covers the posterior lateral part of the Z-Joints?

Articular capsule/capsular ligament

74

What are 3 basic parts of the articular capsule?

Basic, middle and inner

75

Which layer of the articular capsule has synovial fluid with Haluronic acid?

Inner layer

76

Which layer of the articular capsule is rich in nerve supply, low in blood supply?

Outer layer

77

Which layer of the articular capsule is highly vascularized with no nerves?

Middle layer

78

The articular capsule is stressed the most in _______.

Rotation

79

What type of joints are the Z joints?

Gliding

80

The ligamentum flava forms the ______ boundary of the IVF. Is highly ______. Helps restrict _______. Is thicker in the _____ region

Posterior

Elastic

Hyper flexion

Lumbar

81

What is the ligamentum flavum continuous with?

Posterior Atlanta-occipital membrane

82

The ligamentum flavum supports the anterior aspect of the _______ _____.

Z- joint

83

When is the intertransverse ligament stressed the most?

In contralateral bending or lateral flexion .

84

Narrowing of disc space results in:

Stress on facet joint

85

6 Ligaments of the Atlanto-occipital articulation

2 articular capsules

1 anterior atlant-occipital ligament

1 posterior Atlanto-occipital ligament

2 Lateral Atlano-occipital ligaments

86

3 synovial joints of the Atlanto-axial articulation

2 lateral Atlanto-axial joints

1 Median Atlanto-axial joint

87

How many total ligaments in the Atlanto-axial articulation?

7

88

50% of rotation comes from:

Atlantoaxial joint

89

7 ligaments of atlantoaxial articulations

***TEST Q*****

2 articular capsules

2 accessory ligaments

1 anterior atlantoaxial ligament

1 posterior atlantoaxial ligament

1 transverse ligament of the atlas

90

6 ligaments of the occipital axial complex

1 membrane tectoria

2 alar ligaments

1 apical ligament

1 crucial ligament

1 ligamentum nuchae

91

Superior extension of posterior longitudinal ligament

Membrana tectoria, AKA Tectorial Membrane, occipito-axial ligament

92

Where does the membrana tectoria attach?

from the posterior aspect of body of C-2 to anterior rim of foramen magnum of occiput

93

Function of the membrana tectoria

Holds other ligaments in. Limits flexion and extension of the atlas on the occiput .

94

Where are the alar ligaments (AKA Check Ligaments, or Odontoid ligaments) located?

Extend from posterior lateral aspect of the odontoid process to the medial surface of occipital condyles.

95

What is the function of the Alar Ligaments?

Limits or checks contralateral axial roration and flexion whiplash)

96

Damage of the Alar Ligaments will allow for _____ rotation and _____ flexion of __________ ______

increased
lateral
atlanto-occipital articulation

97

What type of injuries are primarily responsible for chronic whiplash symptoms, especially post-traumatic headaches

Injured Alar Ligaments.

98

Upper cervical ligaments:

Occipitoaxial ligament
Apical ligament
Alar ligaments

99

1 inch long V shaped ligament. Extends from anterior wall of foramen magnum, where it is the widest, to the superior terminal aspect of dens of C-2. Remnant of the embryonic notochord

Apical ligament

100

Apical ligament's tit

**TEST QUESTION**

20 degrees anterior

101

Ligament attached to the transverse ligament. Function is to hold transverse ligament in place

Cruciate ligaments

102

2 parts of the cruciate ligament

1- Superior crus
2- Inferior crus

103

Crus anterior tip of foramen magnum

Superior crus

104

Crus posterior aspect of C2 body

Inferior crus

105

Ligaments attached to the lumbo-sacral articulation

Lumbosacral ligament
Iliolumbar ligament

106

Lumbosacral articulations are the same as the thoracic and lumbar ligaments, except there is no _______ _____

Intertransverse ligament

107

Ligament from TVP L-5 to sacral Alae and promontory

Lumbosacral ligament

108

Ligament from TVP L5 to crest of ilium anterior to sacro-iliac joint.

Iliolumbar ligament

109

6 ligaments of intersacral articulations

4 Fibrocartilages
1 Anterior intersacral ligament
1 Posterior Intersacral Ligament

110

Ligament present between segments until segments fuse and it ossifies

Fibrocartilage ligaments

111

Ligament analogous to ALL. Present till segments fuse then ossify

Anterior intersacral ligament

112

Ligament analogous to PLL. Present till segments fuse then ossify

Posterior intersacral ligament

113

8 Ligaments of the sacro-coccygeal articulation

1- Intervertebral fibrocartilage
1- Anterior sacrococcygeal ligament
1- Deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
1- Superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
2- Lateral sacrococcygeal ligaments
2- Intercornual ligaments

114

Ligament that is a thin fibrous extension of ALL

Anterior sacrococcygeal ligament

115

Ligament extension of PLL. From sacral hiatus to 1st coccygeal

Deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

116

Ligament on top of sacral hiatus. Forms roof over top. Longer than deep posterior sacococcygeal ligament

Superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

117

Ligaments from inferior angle of sacrum to coccygeal alae. Analogous to intertransverse

Lateral Sacrococcygeal ligaments

118

Ligaments from sacral coruna to coccygeal cornua. Analogous to articular capsules

Intercornual ligaments

119

5 intercoccygeal ligaments

3 intersegmental fibrocartilages
1 anterior coccygeal ligament
1 posterior coccygeal ligament

120

4 cartilaginous synchondrodial joints.

Intersegmental fibrocartilages

121

Fibrocartilage present in coccyx ossify around age:

25-30

122

Fibrous extension of ALL, then ossifies

Anterior coccygeal ligament

123

Fibrous extension of PLL then ossifies

Posterior coccygeal ligament.

124

7 Ligaments of the sacro-iliac joint

1 articular capsule
1 anterior sacroiliac ligament
1 interosseous sacroiliac ligament
1 short posterior sacroiliac ligament
1 long posterior sacroiliac ligament
1 sacrotuberous ligament
1 sacrospinous ligament

125

Ligament from the anterior surface of sacrum (S2,3,4) to spine of ischium:

Sacrospinous ligament

126

What is whiplash?

Both a torn ligament (sprain) and torn muscle (strain)

127

Women are 40% _____ likely to be injured from a car crash, likely due to their _____ ____.

More

Smaller size

128

Men’s injuries are likely to be _____ severe

More

129

Tolerance to impact DECREASES over the age of:

40

130

The most common source of chronic neck pain after whiplash is the:

Cervical facet joint

131

How soon can symptoms of whiplash occur?

Immediately after the accident, within 12-24 hours, a few days, a few weeks, or even a few months

132

Whiplash victims are 10x more likely to develop ______

Spondylosis (osteoarthritis)

133

Signs and symptoms associated with slower recovery rate after whiplash

Neck pain upon palpation

Pain or numbness radiating from neck to arms

Headaches

134

Symptoms of whiplash, not including pain

Visual disturbances, dizziness, weakness, fatigue, poor concentration, difficulty sleeping, poor memory and depression

135

Type of pain: Deep, burning, gnawing, strapping or dull pain

Nerve pain

136

Type of pain: cramping or pulling pain, dulll achy, superficial

Muscle pain

137

Type of pain: sharp, deep boring

Fracture (bone) joint pain

138

Type of pain: throbbing

Vascular (pain when heart beats)

139

Type of pain: Stabbing, lighting like or shooting pain

Nerve root pain

140

4 phases of healing

1- Acute inflammatory phase
2- Tissue repair phase
3- rehabilitative/remodeling phase
4- maintenance/wellness phase

141

How long does acute inflammatory phase last?

48-72 hours

142

How long does the tissue repair phase last?

Lasts from 48 hours -12 weeks

143

How long does rehabilitative/remodeeling phase last?

Up to 1 year

144

How long does maintenance/wellness phase last?

A lifetime

145

Signs/symptoms of acute phase

Pain, swelling, head, redness, loss of function

146

There are ___ discs. __ cervical , ___ thoracic, ___ lumbar

23,
6 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumber

147

IVD (intervertebral disc) is attached to:

Vertebral bodies
ALL
PLL
Intra-articular
Ligaments
Ribs 2-9

148

Function of the disc is to maintain the ____ ___ between vertebrae, aids in ______ of the spine, and acts to properly ______ ______ _____.

Changeable space

Flexibility

Assimilate compressive loads