PPT 1 - Spine Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > PPT 1 - Spine > Flashcards

Flashcards in PPT 1 - Spine Deck (67):
1

Spinal Column AKA...

Vertebral Column
Central Axis
Back Bone

2

Spinal Column consists of ___ parts

3

Spine
Sacrum
Coccyx

3

A Child 8 years or less has ___ segments

33

24 spine (same as adult)
5 sacrum (not fused)123rd
4 coccyx (not fused)

4

An adult has ___ segments

26

24 spinal
1 sacrum
1 coccyx

5

First 3 Sacrum Segments Fuse when?

Between the ages of 9-11 (late childhood)

6

Lower 3 sacrum segments fuse together when?

18-20 (early adulthood)

7

Coccyx Fuses when?

One segment ossified every 5 years and becomes one bone between 25-30yo

8

Cervical spine consists of ____ individual segments

7

It is the upper segment of the spine

9

Thoracic spine has ____ individual segments

12

It is the middle section of the spine

10

The Lumbar Spine consists of _____ individual segments

5

Lower segment of the back

11

Average length of the adult male spine

28 inches

12

Average length of the female adult spine

25 inches

13

The discs are ______% of the height of the vertebral column

25%

Discs - cushion between the discs

14

Spinal Column segments are divided into two types. They are...

True segments &
False segments

15

True Segments are defined as...

Segments that are freely movable in an adult

16

False Segments are describes as...

Segments that are not freely moveable in an adult spine

17

Segments that are true are...

The 24 segments of the spine (thoracic, cervical, and lumbar)

18

Segments that are false are...

The sacrum and the coccyx

19

Typical characteristics of cervical vertebra

-2 heads on the spinous process
-holes in the transverse process (TVP)
-shapes like an oval or rectangle

20

The spine has the following ranges of motion...

Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral flexion

21

Characteristics of a typical thoracic vertebra

-costal facet (indentations)on transverse process (TVP)
-demifacets(indentations where the ribs connect)
-heart shaped

22

Characteristics of the lumbar vertebra

-4 facet joints
-kidney shaped

23

A typical spinal vertebra is divided into 2 basic parts. They are...

1. Anterior (the vertebral body)
2. Posterior (vertebral arch, posterior arch, dorsal arch, neural arch, and spinal arch)

24

The arch of a vertebra is made up of...

2 Pedicles (vertical)
2 Laminae (horizontal)

25

The purpose of the arch is to...

Support the 7 processes
(1 spinous, 2 transverse, 4 articulation process)

26

The anterior vertebral arch is comprised of...

Vertebral body

27

The posterior vertebral arch is comprised of...

Pedicles, Latina, and processes

28

Vertebral foremen, when stacked together form the...

Vertebral canal

29

What is the purpose of the vertebral foramen?

It allows the spinal cord to run through the spine

30

What is the largest part of the vertebra?

The vertebral body

31

What is the purpose of the vertebral body?

It supports the weight placed on the vertebra

32

What shape is the typical vertebra?

Square or round

33

The transverse diameter of the vertebral ___________ in size from C2 to L3

Increase (like a pyramid)

34

When does the epiphyseal plate fuse to the vertebral body?

Between the ages of 16-20

35

Why should you not perform ultrasounds on children?

Ultrasound causes early fusing, stopping bone growth

36

What is the end plate?

Hyaline cartilage on top of the epiphyseal plate that acts as a glue to the disc and the vertebra

37

What are Pedicles?

The anterior part of the vertebral arch that attach the body to the rest of the vertebra

38

When do Pedicles fuse to the posterior lateral aspect of the vertebral bodies?

3-6 years of age

39

An arch caused by the Pedicle attaching to the vertebral body

Pedicle Notch

40

When notches line up to create a space through which the spinal nerve roots leave the spinal cord

Intervertebral Foramen

41

The superior Pedicle notch of the vertebra below becomes the ________ of the IVF

Floor

42

The inferior Pedicle notch of the vertebra above forms the _______ of the IVF

Roof

43

Congenital shortening of one or both of the pedicles

Pedicogenic Stenosis

44

Pedicogenic Stenosis causes the spinal canal to be _________

Narrowed (smaller hole)

45

2 parts of the vertebra that connect to the posterior aspect of the pedicles

Laminae

46

The Laminae form the ________________ of the vertebral arch

Posterior portion

47

The Laminae is angled....

Posterior and medial

48

The Laminae are _______ & _______ to the neural foramen

Posterior and lateral

49

The Laminae fuse together in the back during the first _____ years of life

5

50

When the Laminae do not fuse, this is called what?

Spina bifida

51

Spina bifida is the most common form of ____________ _____________ defect

Neural tube

52

Most posterior part of the vertebra

Spinous process

53

The deviation of the SP (which can occur due to trauma during development) makes it the ________ reliable area of palpation when trying to ascertain subluxation.

LEAST

54

The tip of the SP fuses with the rest of the SP around age _____.

16

55

Laminae close during the first _____ of life.

1 year

56

These project laterally from the Laminae-pedicles junction. They serve as attachments for muscles and ligaments. They vary in size & shape.

Transverse Process (TVP)

57

What are the 2 parts the TVP is composed of?

TRUE part : diapophysis
COSTAL element : pleurapophysis

58

The tips of the TVP fuse to the rest of the TVP at what age?

16

59

What is zygapophysis?

The 4 articulate processes

60

What are the 4 articulate processes?

2 superior processes located on the superior aspect of the vertebra

2 inferior articular processes located on the inferior aspect of the vertebra

61

In what plane are the cervical facets oriented in?

Coronal

62

In what plane are the thoracic facets located in?

Coronal

63

In what plane are the lumbar facets oriented in?

Sagital

64

When 2 adjacent articular processes come together, they form a joint called _____

The articular joint

65

The articular surface of the articular process (the face) is called the ___________

Facet

66

The articular joint is surrounded by the ___________ ___________

Articular capsule

67

The articular capsule is composed of 3 main parts. What are they?

Inner part
Central layer
Outer part