Flashcards in PPT 1 - Spine Deck (67):
Spinal Column AKA...
Spinal Column consists of ___ parts
A Child 8 years or less has ___ segments
24 spine (same as adult)
5 sacrum (not fused)123rd
4 coccyx (not fused)
An adult has ___ segments
First 3 Sacrum Segments Fuse when?
Between the ages of 9-11 (late childhood)
Lower 3 sacrum segments fuse together when?
18-20 (early adulthood)
Coccyx Fuses when?
One segment ossified every 5 years and becomes one bone between 25-30yo
Cervical spine consists of ____ individual segments
It is the upper segment of the spine
Thoracic spine has ____ individual segments
It is the middle section of the spine
The Lumbar Spine consists of _____ individual segments
Lower segment of the back
Average length of the adult male spine
Average length of the female adult spine
The discs are ______% of the height of the vertebral column
Discs - cushion between the discs
Spinal Column segments are divided into two types. They are...
True segments &
True Segments are defined as...
Segments that are freely movable in an adult
False Segments are describes as...
Segments that are not freely moveable in an adult spine
Segments that are true are...
The 24 segments of the spine (thoracic, cervical, and lumbar)
Segments that are false are...
The sacrum and the coccyx
Typical characteristics of cervical vertebra
-2 heads on the spinous process
-holes in the transverse process (TVP)
-shapes like an oval or rectangle
The spine has the following ranges of motion...
Flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral flexion
Characteristics of a typical thoracic vertebra
-costal facet (indentations)on transverse process (TVP)
-demifacets(indentations where the ribs connect)
Characteristics of the lumbar vertebra
-4 facet joints
A typical spinal vertebra is divided into 2 basic parts. They are...
1. Anterior (the vertebral body)
2. Posterior (vertebral arch, posterior arch, dorsal arch, neural arch, and spinal arch)
The arch of a vertebra is made up of...
2 Pedicles (vertical)
2 Laminae (horizontal)
The purpose of the arch is to...
Support the 7 processes
(1 spinous, 2 transverse, 4 articulation process)
The anterior vertebral arch is comprised of...
The posterior vertebral arch is comprised of...
Pedicles, Latina, and processes
Vertebral foremen, when stacked together form the...
What is the purpose of the vertebral foramen?
It allows the spinal cord to run through the spine
What is the largest part of the vertebra?
The vertebral body
What is the purpose of the vertebral body?
It supports the weight placed on the vertebra
What shape is the typical vertebra?
Square or round
The transverse diameter of the vertebral ___________ in size from C2 to L3
Increase (like a pyramid)
When does the epiphyseal plate fuse to the vertebral body?
Between the ages of 16-20
Why should you not perform ultrasounds on children?
Ultrasound causes early fusing, stopping bone growth
What is the end plate?
Hyaline cartilage on top of the epiphyseal plate that acts as a glue to the disc and the vertebra
What are Pedicles?
The anterior part of the vertebral arch that attach the body to the rest of the vertebra
When do Pedicles fuse to the posterior lateral aspect of the vertebral bodies?
3-6 years of age
An arch caused by the Pedicle attaching to the vertebral body
When notches line up to create a space through which the spinal nerve roots leave the spinal cord
The superior Pedicle notch of the vertebra below becomes the ________ of the IVF
The inferior Pedicle notch of the vertebra above forms the _______ of the IVF
Congenital shortening of one or both of the pedicles
Pedicogenic Stenosis causes the spinal canal to be _________
Narrowed (smaller hole)
2 parts of the vertebra that connect to the posterior aspect of the pedicles
The Laminae form the ________________ of the vertebral arch
The Laminae is angled....
Posterior and medial
The Laminae are _______ & _______ to the neural foramen
Posterior and lateral
The Laminae fuse together in the back during the first _____ years of life
When the Laminae do not fuse, this is called what?
Spina bifida is the most common form of ____________ _____________ defect
Most posterior part of the vertebra
The deviation of the SP (which can occur due to trauma during development) makes it the ________ reliable area of palpation when trying to ascertain subluxation.
The tip of the SP fuses with the rest of the SP around age _____.
Laminae close during the first _____ of life.
These project laterally from the Laminae-pedicles junction. They serve as attachments for muscles and ligaments. They vary in size & shape.
Transverse Process (TVP)
What are the 2 parts the TVP is composed of?
TRUE part : diapophysis
COSTAL element : pleurapophysis
The tips of the TVP fuse to the rest of the TVP at what age?
What is zygapophysis?
The 4 articulate processes
What are the 4 articulate processes?
2 superior processes located on the superior aspect of the vertebra
2 inferior articular processes located on the inferior aspect of the vertebra
In what plane are the cervical facets oriented in?
In what plane are the thoracic facets located in?
In what plane are the lumbar facets oriented in?
When 2 adjacent articular processes come together, they form a joint called _____
The articular joint
The articular surface of the articular process (the face) is called the ___________
The articular joint is surrounded by the ___________ ___________